Chapter 4

Chapter 4  












Mr. Tahiliomal.

Nukh: – Rai Gorath, (Rai Garach).

The Tahilianis migrated from Kutch. They are Lohana. Many Lohanas and Bhatias have word ‘Rai’ prefixed to their Nukh. It is therefore assumed that they were the favorites of the ‘Rai’ rulers of Kutch. Similarly Shahanis of Hyderabad and Larkana adopted their surname from the Governor of Chandka (Larkana)  

Shah Bihari, as they were his favorite and held high posts in the Government.  

Diwan Bherumal M. Advani has in his volume stated that Tahilianis are not Bhatias and therefore it can safely be said that they are Lohanas and lived at Thhat district Navsheri Firoz.   

That originates from the Sanskrit word Thhhat, pronounced in Sindhi as Tar (bank of river). Thhat means a landing point (jetty) on a river where one crosses from one bank to another. Every crossing point or a jetty had a settlement around it. 

Thhato and the area around was close to River Sindhu and fishermen inhabited the area. They, in addition to fishing, also ferried travelers across the river. The settlement was called Thhato or Thhata. As the settlement grew, Thhat merged with Nagar Thhata, but the old quarter was still called Thhat Jo Paro.  

In the year 1811-1812, famine struck Kutch, Kathiawar and Rajputana. Even money could not buy the grain. Exodus took place and people sought refuge in Sind. Amongst them were the Brahm Khatris, Bhatia and Lohanas. They all moved to Laar. Some of them went towards Sahiti and Larkana viz.:

Towards Ratay Deray went the Jaisinghanis, who had come from Rajputana.   Towards Thhat went the Tahilianis, who had come from Kutch. They all  bought land and cultivated it. 

Diwan Adoomal (Advani), (during the Kalhora reign), had married from Thhat.  

In 1825, river Sindhu rose above its banks, leading to inundation of Thhat, Mithyani, Tagar, Kamaldero district Kandyaro, and other villages. The zamindars (landowners) chose to stay on and reconstructed their villages. In the years 1857-1858, floods struck again engulfing the entire area.  

Seth Tahlimal’s (Tahliyani) grandson Seth Hotchand, son of Seth Lakhomal reconstructed a new Thhat that was named ‘Thhat Hotchand’. Zamindar Miya Bhawno Khan, a Goraho by caste, constructed another Thhat called ‘Thhat Bhawno’. Forty years later, in the year 1898, floods again destroyed the two Thhats, but only to be reconstructed again.  

Seth Tahlimal’s descendent Seth Bhojraj had his own village and around the year 1900, he constructed his own Thhat named Thhat Bhojraj. The present Mathyani village also dates back to that era. 

Between Thhat Hotchand, Thhat Bhawno and That Bhojraj, a thick forest called ‘Mahari’ existed, that gave refuge to the bad elements. An alternate safe route via Tharu Shah was then created.  

Train service between Tharu Shah and Sikrand, via Thhat Hotchand started in the year 1922. After Tharu Shah, the next station was Thhat Hotchand.   

In the year 1945, River Sindhu flooded the area. Many inhabitants left the area to settle at Tharoo Shah and Navsheri Firoz. A little later, Dacoits looted Seth Jharimal’s house and took away belongings worth Rupees twenty – twenty five thousand.  Around 300 Tahiliani families lived there in the year 1945.  

Seth Tahiliani’s descendent are Tahiliani. His cousin Seth Jutomal was younger to him. His descendants called themselves Tahiliani.  

Seth Tahiliomal had five sons: M/s. Lakhomal, Premchand, Pheromal, Pamandas and Mangharmal. They all lived at Thhat Hotchand that was named after Seth Hotchand son of Seth Lakhomal. Seth Lahromal Kodnani, and Seth Satidas, both zamindars were also domiciled there. Seth Hotchand was “Vadero” (Chief/Mukhi) of Thhat Hotchand. 

Seth Bhojraj Sajanmal, grandson of Seth Pheromal, lived at Thhat Bhojraj that was named after him.  

Seth Pagarimal’s children (second son of Seth Pheromal) stayed at Thhat Goraho or Gorahi. 

Seth Bhojraj has two sons: – Seth Gunomal and Seth Verhomal. 

Seth Gunomal’s son was Diwan Tolaram and Seth Verhomal’s son Mr. Hazarimal was a postmaster.  

Diwan Tolaram Gunomal was born in the Village Thhat on 5th Dec. 1869. His parents were zamindars but his father Seth Gunomal was a trader at Bombay.  

Diwan Tolaram was the first Tahiliani to go to Hyderabad and study English. He, after passing Matric (O level) taught in an English school at Navsheri Firoz. Soon thereafter, Diwan Tolaram quit teaching and joined Revenue Dept. at a salary of rupees fifteen. Hardwork and dedication rewarded him with the rank of District Administrator (Mukhtiarkar). He spent most of the time at Hyderabad, Tharparkar and Sakhar.  

Diwan Tolaram rose to the rank of Mukhtiarkar at Gharhi-yaseen and Shikarpur and later was appointed as Deputy Collector of Rohiri Division. Soon thereafter he was raised to the rank of Deputy Commissioner and Joint Collector (Chitnis) of District Tharparkar. Diwan Tolaram had interest of his people (Sahiti- ites) at heart and persuaded them to be literate and even got them jobs. This is why most of the Sahiti-ites were in service in the year 1946-1947.  

Diwan Tolaram was responsible for founding an English School at Thhat Bhojraj and at Mithyani. In appreciation, the Science Hall in the school was named after him.  

Around the years 1892-1894, Swami Hemraj Chidakashi visited Hyderabad. His preachings influenced Diwan Tolaram who then took one years leave from the school and opened a ‘Bal Mandir’ in the premises of Chidakashi Temple where he taught religion to young children. Before retirement, Diwan Tolaram was Head Master of the ‘Tapdar Training School’. After enjoying eight months of leave Diwan Tolaram opted for pension on 25th Dec. 1924. In 1929, Diwan Tolaram expired at Thhat Bhojraj at the age of 60.  

Diwan Tolaram had two sons: – Mr. Jhuromal and Mr. Atmaram. 

Mr. Jhuromal was a zamindar and devoted most of his time to learning medicine from a renowned Hakim (Doctor) Ajmal Khan. 

Mr. Atmaram, the other son, graduated from Karachi College and stood 1st. in B.Sc. He won Archson Memorial Prize.  In 1925 he joined Tharu Shah High School as a teacher and in the year 1928 he passed B.T. exam. In the year 1946 he became Head Master of Tharu Shah High School. 

Mr. Atmaram was a keen sportsman and president of the Sahiti Teachers Association and of Motumal Harchandmal Sahiti Tournament.  


EDUCATION: – Advancement. 

In 1853, Govt. High Schools started functioning, one each at Karachi, Hyderabad and Shikarpur.   

The Amils and Bhaibunds of Hyderabad took maximum advantage of the Hyderabad High School. Some of the students of the school went to Bombay for higher Degree courses. Hyderabad became an education center and as a result thereof, the top Govt. postings were awarded to Hyderabadi’s.  

Sahiti, for many years did not have even one High School, even though the students longed for one.  

In March 1871 Kotri was linked to Sakhar by train. This facilitated Sahiti students to travel to Hyderabad for studies, despite the cumbersome journey. 

Students from Bhareen and Tharoo Shah had to cross the Indus River near Mithyani, proceed to Purana Deray, onward to Phulji village.  A trolley was provided by the Railways to transport people from Phulji village to Phulji Station who then boarded the train to reach Kotri.  

Students from Village Chanijan and Paran (District Mori) had to cross Malkin or Laleen to board the train at Saywan for Kotri. A Railway bridge linking Kotri with Gidu Bunder was inaugurated on May 25th 1900. Prior to that a Govt. owned ferry shuttled between Kotri and Gidu Bunder from dawn to dusk. The students then traveled by Tango (horse carriage) to reach Hyderabad.  

Very few students from Sahiti took the trouble to undergo this ordeal and therefore many opted for zamindari, and trading.   

There were very few trading houses (Kothis) towards Sonmayani and Laas Bela. Railway linked Hyderabad with Rohiri towards the end of 1896 and that made rail travel easy and comfortable.  

The Govt. did not take any effort to provide schools in Sahiti. The Sahiti- ites got together and with their own efforts founded Panchayati High School at Navsheri Firoz. Later, the Govt. sponsored a Madraso (School for Muslims). Some time later schools came up at Bhareen, Tharoo Shah and at Mithyani, each about two miles away from one another.   

In no other district of Sind, were there so many schools in close proximity.  Easy access to schools and easy mobility (railway and roads) gave Sahiti an edge over the other districts in producing graduates that were second only to Hyderabad.  

The Sahiti-ites held important posts. However, the Tahilianis lagged behind in the race. After Diwan Tolaram Gunomal was appointed Mukhtiarkar (Revenue Officer) there arose awareness and by 1946 the Sahiti-ites had produced graduates and double graduates who held important posts.  



 Nukh: – Forya or Phorya. 

In the year 1946, around twenty Teckwani families lived at Village Manjho in District Kotri.  

Prominent amongst them was the family of Mr. Hassanand Menghraj who was the Principal of Karachi’s City High School located at Sarai Quarters, Karachi. Mr. Hassanand realizing the difficulties that the students encountered in reaching their schools had established this school in the year 1931 and had competent graduates as teachers.   


PRIMALANI: – Seth Premmal. 

Primalanis lived at Hyderabad. Seth Prem-mal was the great grandfather of Seth Menghraj. Seth Menghraj’s son was Seth Koromal. Prominent amongst them was Mr. Hassomal Kalachand, grandson of Seth Koromal. 

Mr. Hassomal Kalachand was a very well known and outstanding Advocate of Hyderabad. In the year 1896, Mr. Gopaldas Jhamatmal Advani did his law and worked with Mr. Hassomal for twelve years.  

Mr. Hassomal was a patriot and president of Hyderabad Municipality. He had five sons: M/s. Tejumal, Chandiram, Murjmal, Jiwatram and Sitaldas.  

Mr. Tejumal, like his father was also a prominent Lawyer. In 1946, his son Mr. Naraindas joined ranks with him.        

The second son of Mr. Hassomal was Dr. Chandiram M.B.B.S., F.R.F., P & S., F.R.C.S. He was an eye specialist linked with Karachi Civil Hospital as its honorary Surgeon. Dr. Chandiram was for some time Vice President of Indian Medical Association Calcutta and President of Sind Medical Union. He was also Secretary of Karachi’s Health Culture Institute and President of Karachi’s Sind Gymkhana.       

During the First World War (1915-1923), Dr. Chandiram was Captain of Indian Medical Service and connected with many charitable institutions. He was Chairman of the Board of Directors of Hindustan Trading Corporation (India) Ltd. and Sind Swadeshi Stores.  

The other brothers of Dr. Chandiram were involved in business. Mr. Murjmal and Mr. Sitaldas had book stalls at Delhi and Calcutta. Around the same time Mr. Jiwatram had a shop at Darjeeling named ‘Silk House’.

 PUNWANI: – Mr. Punhomal.

 Nukh: Lenjhar. 

Mr. Punhomal, the forefather of Punwani and Mr. Gulrajmal, forefather of Gulrajani, were brothers. They were sons of Seth Mahtabrai Thakurdas.  

Punhomal had five sons: M/s. Khushaldas, Assardas, Panjumal, Gawaldas and Uttamchand. 

Seth Mahtabrai’s ancestors were goldsmiths and lived at ‘Nariganj’ in District Dhadhar. They worshipped Goddess Kalimata. Due to some mis-understanding / dispute with Muslims, they left Nariganj and migrated first to Bakhar in Sind and later moved to Khudabad near Dadoo, that was then the Capital of Sind.   

At Khudabad, the Punwanis confided with Diwan Adoomal (forefather of Advani), and narrated the circumstances under which they had to leave Nariganj. Diwan Adoomal sympathized with them and invited them to construct their houses next to his.  

Later when Hyderabad developed, Diwan Adoomal along with Punwanis moved to Hyderabad and here also they lived next to Diwan Adoomal’s house. This was the reason why Advani Ghitti in Hyderabad had Punwani’s living on one side of the ghitti and Gulrajanis on other side. All the three had very cordial and close relationship and participated with one another in joy and sorrow.  

Both Punwani’s and Gulrajani’s ancestors were Goldsmiths. Some of their descendants were Shroffs (Saraf – Bankers).  

The Mirs, rulers of Sind, collected their taxes in kind and not in cash. Their Revenue/Tax officers collected their share of the harvest and sold it in the market. The proceeds were remitted to Mirs through these Shroffs. On receipt of information, these Shroffs handed over the money to Diwan Valiram Manshiani who was a Vazir (minister) with the Mirs. Diwan Valiram in return deposited the money in the treasury and received a commission as his remuneration.  

Later Mr. Dasomal Punwani and others started working with the Mirs and became Diwans. As Mr. Dasomal and others had come from Khudabad, they were referred to as Khudabadi Amils. Gradually they gave up Goldsmith trade.  

Diwan Dasomal Punwani was a Subedhar (Police Sub. Inspector) with the Mirs. His son, Diwan Dhanrajmal was a Head Clerk in the Railways. He had four sons.  

Mr. Dayaram, the eldest son of Mr. Dhanrajmal, was born in the year 1879. He passed his Law in 1908 and started practicing at Sakhar and in Upper Sind. Mr. Dhanrajmal became Public Prosecutor and expired in the year 1934-1935. 

Diwan Partabrai, the second son, was born in April 1883. He passed his Matric (O level) and final exam in the year 1900, but could not find a job to his taste. 

Rajarshi Diwan Dayaram Gidumal convinced Diwan Partabrai and another youth to join the Polytechnic at Madras and gave them scholarship of rupees forty. However, the head of the Polytechnic who was an American, quit his job that led to closure of Polytechnic. Diwan Partabrai and the youth returned back to Hyderabad. 

Diwan Partabrai then decided to study law. He passed out in the year 1908 and became Asst. Public Prosecutor in the year 1914, but kept his practice open.  In 1935 he became Acting Public Prosecutor.

In the years 1935-36, Diwan Partabrai’s appointment as Public Prosecutor was confirmed. 

In the year 1936, Sind separated from Bombay. Diwan Partabrai was selected by the Sind Government for Advocate General’s post and retired in 1943. 

In Oct. 1944, the Chief Minister of Sind, Mr. Allah Bux was assassinated. Honorable Mr. Khan Bahadur Ayub Khan Khahro, also a minister, was arrested and charged with conspiracy to kill Mr. Allah Bux. The Government of Sind engaged services of Diwan Partabrai and appointed him as a Special Public Prosecutor to the case. The case went on till July 1945. Mr. Khan Bahadur Ayub Khan Khahro was convicted and Diwan Partabrai came into limelight.

Diwan Partabrai was chairman of the Sind Bar Council, Honorary Secretary of Birdwood Library, member of Sind Law Report committee, member of Karachi Club and life member of Hindu Gymkhana. In the year 1939, he became President of the Rotary and Karachi Club and later in 1940 he was elected as Chairman of the Karachi Race Club. 

Diwan Partabrai’s two younger brothers, Mr. Wadhumal and Mr. Gurdasmal had expired prior to 1946.

Many Punwanis were at first not inclined to attain higher education. After learning basic English, they took up service. However with times that changed. Many of them became Advocates and some Doctors.  

Dr. Metharam Gidumal was a professor at Karachi College. Dr. Bulchand Parsram Punwani was the first Sindhi to become a Doctor. In the year 1900 he published a monthly magazine called ‘Tundrasti’ (Tun-dras-ti – Health).

Around the year 1946, the Punwanis, like other Amils, had become traders as well. The Punwanis were not very rich but every one of them had a roof over their head and owned the house they lived in.  

Mr. Hassomal Pribhdas Punwani was born in the year 1886 at Hyderabad. He left school after doing seventh grade English and joined Railways as a head clerk. His father Mr. Pribhdas, who was a man with limited means, expired and the entire burden to sustain the family fell on Mr. Hassomal. He faced the situation but pressure took its toll. Mr. Pribhdas, at the age of 47, expired in the year 1933.  

Above: This  old mosque was built hundred years ago  by Kalhora ruler Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro in the city of Khuda Abad. Submitted by Dr.Amir Abbas Soomro 



PUNWANI:  of Kherpur: – Diwan Punhomal.  

Punwanis of Kherpur Mirpur Sahib were cousins of Punwani who lived at Hyderabad.  

Diwan Punhomal, after whom the Punwanis are named, had five sons: M/s. Khushaldas, Assardas, Panjumal, Gawaldas and Uttamchand. 

Diwan Uttamchand’s son, Diwan Nansingh married Diwan Amalrai Ajwani’s sister from Kherpur. 

Diwan Nansingh had four sons: M/s. Tilokchand, Khubchand, Dayaram and Tawnarmal. After the death of Diwan Nansingh, Diwan Amalrai rehabilitated his sister at Kherpur in Ajwani Mahlo (Paro, Street) next to his house. 

Diwan Tilokchand had three sons: M/s. Hardasmal, Suratsingh and Bhavandas. They shifted to Hyderabad and stayed at Punwani Ghitti. Diwan Khubchand, Dayaram and Tawnarmal continued to live at Kherpur. 

Diwan Khubchand worked with the Revenue Dept. at Jacobabad. He expired on Feb. 13th 1867 and left behind a minor son named Master Hirasingh. Diwan Khubchand’s wife also expired within 80 days of her husband’s death. Diwan Khubchand’s brother Diwan Tawnarmal, who also had a minor son by the name of Master Parmanand, raised the two boys together. 

Diwan Tawnarmal was the Head Munshi (Manager) at Ghotki and later was promoted to post of Mukhtiarkar (District Administrator). He expired soon after retirement. His son, Mr. Parmanand also passed away at the age of 30. He had no children.

Diwan Dayaram, brother of Diwan Tawnarmal, expired two years after his marriage leaving behind his widow and a son named Master Harchand who also passed away at a tender age. 

Diwan Hirasingh Khubchand, who was raised by his Uncle Diwan Tawnarmal, also expired at the age of 32 years. He left behind one daughter and two sons. 

Mr. Parmanand Tawnarmal’s widow Shrimati Mithibai lived with her in-laws and looked after her mother-in-law and three children of Diwan Hirasingh Khubchand. In the year 1937, Shrimati Mithibai passed away.    

Diwan Hirasingh’s son Mr. Jethanand was a clerk with Karachi Port Trust. He retired and took pension in the year 1942. Mr. Jethanand had a son named Mr. Tirth and two daughters. All the three were married in 1946.

The second son of Diwan Hirasingh, Master Issardas was only two and a half years old when his father expired. He was raised by his aunt (Chachi) Shrimati Mithibai. Mr. Issardas joined the Railways and was stationmaster at Kot Lalo and other stations. His last posting before retirement in Oct. 1945 was at Shahdadpur. 

Mr. Issardas had one son who was called Mr. Bhagwandas. In 1946 Mr. Bhagwandas was stationed and working with the Telegraph Office at Quetta. 

Mr. Issardas’ sister Shrimati Thakibai married Hyderabad’s Mr. Harisingh son of Diwan Jhamatmal Baharmal Advani. Unfortunately she expired at the age of 20, leaving behind a two and a half years old son: Master Tarachand. Though Mr. Tarachand was brought up by his Nana’s family (maternal parents), he used his paternal surname Advani. In 1946, Mr. Tarachand was with the Dept. of Post. He had one son Mr. Jaikrishin and four daughters.   


PHULWANI: – Mr. Phuloosingh.  

 Nukh: – Bodiya or Bodija.

Phulwani’s roots are connected with Parmar Sodhha Rajputs of Rajputana. They migrated to Sind and captured Ratu Kot towards Khapri. In the year 1226, Parmar Sodhha Rajputs fought with Somrans of Sind and captured Amar Kot, and Thhar. Thereafter, some of them went to Nagarparkar and the rest remained at Amar Kot. 

During the Kalhora reign, Amar Kot was a part of Kalhora regime. Miya Abdul Nabi is said to have given or sold Amar Kot to the Rulers of Jodhpur. 

In 1782, Miya Abdul Nabi fought a battle with the Mirs and lost. He (Miya Abdul Nabi) sought help from the Raja of Jodhpur. Raja deputed his army under the command of Mr. Phuloosingh to his rescue.  However, Mr. Phuloosingh not receiving any wages for his army, turned back. It is said that thereafter Mir Karam Ali Khan allotted different portions of his estate (Jagir) to Rajput Sardars (Chiefs), far away from one another, so that the Rajput Chiefs may not unite and fight against him.    

Mr. Phuloosingh received his Jagir (Land) near ‘Aman’, near Navsheri Firoz, Dist. Pad-Eedan, and named it ‘Sanwali’. In 1843, the British army invaded Sind. Kherpur became a separate State. With this division, Mr. Phuloosingh’s Jagir (land) was also divided. Half went into Kherpur State and the other half to the British ruled Sind.    

After Mr. Phullosingh’s demise, his son Mr. Daryadinmal inherited the Jagir. After Mr. Daryadinmal’s demise his son Mr. Bhagmal succeeded. Mr. Bhagmal, to augment his requirment of water, obtained permission from the British and dug a canal from his Jagir to ‘Sada Wah’ (Nasrat Wah) located near the village Khahi Raho, towards Navsheri Firoz. The Wah was known as Bhagh Wah.    

The grand children of Mr. Phuloosingh built villages on their Jagir (land) and called it Bela Wah, Dhakhi, Maherja, Phul Pota, Cheho, Tanya and Ghher Gajo etc. In 1946 there were around 200 Phulwani families living in those villages but many were moving out to cities for security reasons. The Phulwanis were zamindar and retailers. A few of them were (in the year 1946) educated as well.

Prominent amongst the Phulwani was Seth Shewakram, son of Seth Bhagmal. Seth Shewakram’s son Mr. Chanrai was born in the year 1911 at village Phul Pota. He gained his education at Navsheri Firoz and at Karachi. Mr. Chanrai then passed his M. A. at Aligrah and LL.B. at Bombay. Mr. Chanrai practiced Law at Madras and in 1946, he taught at Karachi City High School and practiced law on the side.


 PHERWANI: – Mr. Pheromal.

 Nukh: – Udesi Pota.

 Pherwanis are Bhatia. They migrated from Jaisalmer and settled at Shikarpur. 

Their ancestor Mr. Pheromal is said to have always worn his Pagree (Cap) slantingly. The Nawab of Shikarpur summoned him to his Court and ordered him to wear the Pagree in the correct manner. Mr. Pheromal replied by > saying that only a sword could straighten his Pagree and walked out of the court. The furious Nawab being insulted sent his men to kill him. In the fight that pursued, Mr. Pheromal killed Nawab’s men and then absconded. He sought refuge in village ‘Maari’.

Bhai Menghraj was son of Bhai Pheromal. His son Mr. Dokiram was a cost accountant and knew Farsi (Persian). The Mir appointed Dokiram as their Munshi. He was thereafter referred to as Munshi Dokiram. Munshi Dokiram had seen action in the two Afghan wars and had knowledge of Bhhoot Vidya (Sorcery). 

Seth Narsinghdas son of Munshi Dokiram had participated in the third Afghan war. He had two sons: Prof. Shewaram Pherwani MA and Dr. Lilaram.

A German Engineer operated an Ice Factory at Shikarpur. Every one had a notion that only a white men could run a factory. But in 1904, Prof. Pherwani changed that belief by opening and running a Ice Factory of his own.  

In upper Sind, it was Seth Udhavdas Shikarpuri who installed a Handloom Textile Mill. Prof. Pherwani, in the year 1908, joined Seth Udhavdas in the venture. It was after this that more textile units were installed at Rohiri.

Prof. Shewaram, from 1912 to 1924 taught at Gurukal and Bombay University. In 1946 he was member of the Board of Shikarpur College.  He was the Organizer of 3 schools meant for Girls and three Maternity Hospitals. Prof. Shewaram also wrote the autobiography of Rajarshi Diwan Dayaram Gidumal.  Prof. Pherwani’s son Jivanlal was in 1946 an Engineer with Shikarpur Power House.

Dr. Lilaram, brother of Prof. Shewaram, had passed his M. A. He had studied at Karachi College. Earlier he had opened a small hospital and in 1946 he built a ‘live-in’ Hospital at Shikarpur. Prof. Shewaram had also written several books.

Amongst the Pherwanis, Mr. Jethanand and Mr. Jivanlal, son of Mr. Devidas, had a Steel Plant for which they had gone to Germany for training. At Karachi they owned a building called ‘Be Indian’.

A note (April 2006 ) 

This is with reference to the origin of names “Pherwani”, Seth Narsingdas was my grandfather and he had 4 sons: Shewaram, Lilaram, Chatrudas and my father Hassanand. Chatrudas was a doctor and Hassanand was a mechanical engineer. He was the Principal of Victoria Jubilee Institute for engineering in Karachi, he was also an engineering consultant.He lived till the ripe old age of 92 and passed away in 1980, leaving behind 2 sons and a daughter.

A Note: Year 2008

Shyam Pherwani, i was thrilled to find this site, where i found more about my maternal family, the pherwanis. my father was mr. jivanlal pherwani. we are three children. my eldest siter, mrs. usha kalvani,married to mr. p.m.kalvani of baroda(marine engr) my elder brother, mr. vijay pherwani,married to dr asha bhatia of bombay, & myself, vina, who married a punjabi army officer,col. ashok leekha, now retired, & working as a magistrate in delhi. mrs. usha kalvani’s elder son, jai, is an m.e., the younger, sanjay, a maxo-facial dental surgeon. vijay’s elder son, ajay, is an engineer, his younger, ashish, is a c.a. my eldest daughter, anjalie, is a radiologist-ultraonologist, married to rajan verma; my second daughter,gitanjalie,is on a sabbatical from genpact, where she was been an a.v.p. trg , married to nikhil chopra,a j.p.morgan’s a project in manila, & the youngest, gayatri, is an eye surgeon, married to an eye surgeon, anupam ahuja. perhaps this could be added to our pherwani family tree? i hope mr. shyam pherwani will continue to provide us with more matter about the family. thanks, shyam


A Note : 3rd Oct 2012

My brother Parmanand Kalvani married to Usha Pherwani daughter of JIvan Phrwani Now 83 living in Banglore BSC .Marine Engg. from England in 1957 fourth son of Menghraj Kalvani first to translate GITA in Sindhi early years 1921 Asst.Comm. of revenew of Bombay Residency. Nanik Kalvani Retd. Flt. Naviagor with AIR INDIA now 80 years settled in England Daughter Sharmila married Science teacher her husband English Andrew Scientist with NPL Daughter Saskia 3 years now won first price in painting at age of 2 years Sharmila Hanson got first price of £ 150,000 from O2 Molile Company of 9 minute Video on Newtons law of motion Aaron Graduate from Oxford Univercity married to Rassian beauty have one son 6 months old All the best Nanik


 JAGTIANI: – Mr. Jagatrai.

 Nukh: – Manchanda.

Jagtianis are cousins of Ajwani, Bhavnani, and Gidwanis.   

Diwan Jagatrai son of Diwan Mathromal Bakharmal Sakharmal was the founder of the Jagtiani surname. It is assumed that they migrated from Village Satipur in Punjab.

Mr. Bolakidas (Bilakhidas) son of Diwan Jagatrai had three sons: M/s. Dayaram, Bachumal, and Bhojraj.

From Diwan Dayaram’s roots came Master Hotchand Kodumal family. Mr. Bulchand Kodumal was a graduate and fluent in Sindhi. He translated ‘History of England’ and wrote a novel ‘Dharti Niwar’ in Sindhi.

From Diwan Bachumal’s roots came Mr. Hiroomal, Mr. Parmanand and Mr. Adyomal.    

From Diwan Bhojraj’s son Diwan Gulabrai’s roots, came Diwan Sahibsingh’s family.

Diwan Sahibsingh had four sons: –

1) Diwan Fatehsingh and his son Mr. Sajansingh.

2) Diwan Lekhsingh Mukhtiarkar (District Administrator). His sons: – Mr. Khanchand, Mr. Nenumal B. A. & First LL.B. Mr. Khanchand’s son Mr. Hashmatrai, England Return. In 1946 he held an important Govt. post at Karachi.  

3) Mr. Tahilsingh. In 1946 he had no children.

4) Diwan Kansingh had four sons.

Diwan Kansingh Sahibsingh was born in 1875. He passed Matric (O level) from Hyderabad High School and after passing his B.Sc. he joined Revenue Dept. as Mukhtiarkar. Diwan Kansingh expired in the year 1940.

Diwan Kansingh’s son Mr. Hirasingh, after doing Matric (O level) went into business. He had, in the year 1946, a ‘Sanitary Ware’ shop at Karachi. His two other sons Mr. Motiram and Mr. Vahanlal were also in same trade while the youngest son Mr. Pribhdas had a ‘Sports Shop’ at Bombay.

Also from Diwan Bhojraj’s roots: Diwan Kansingh Sahibsingh’s great grandfather, Diwan Daulatram’s brother, Diwan Belaram. 

Diwan Belaram’s descendants, Master Tahilram, Mr. Hardaram Mewaram Advocate, and Mr. Lalchand Amardinmal’s family.

Karachi’s Indian Girls High School was founded by Mr. Hardaram while Mr. Lalchand Amardinmal was a novelist.

Diwan Alimchand was brother of Diwan Belaram. His descendants: Mukhi Nihalchand’s family.

Diwan Bhojraj’s other son was Diwan Himatsingh. He was younger to Diwan Gulabrai. From Diwan Himatsingh’s roots came Diwan Kundanmal Salamatrai and others.

From Diwan Bhojraj’s youngest son Sanmukhdas’ roots came Diwan Chhatasingh’s family, Dr. Chimandas Issardas and others.


Mother of 138 children: – 

Hyderabad’s ‘Donan Wari Ghitti’ was inhabited by many Jagtianis. One of them, a Mr. Tolaram had two sons, Mr. Rochiram and Master Khiomal. Both Mr. Rochiram and Master Khiomal had expired prior to 1945. Mr. Rochiram’s widow Shrimati Bhaitbai aged 62 years was alive in the year 1946. 

Shrimati Bhaitbai had five sons and five daughters, all married. The sons and daughters, children and grandchildren, all in all totalled to 138 persons.  



Nukh: – Pahuja. 

Chananis of Ratay Deray have the same Nukh.

Jhangiani are Arorvanshi. They first migrated from Aror in Rohiri district to Punjab. Later some of them moved to Jaisalmer. It is believed that Jhangianis along with the Hingoranis came to Sind from Jaisalmer and stayed at Village ‘Bharya or Bhareen’, near Navsheri Firoz in Sahiti district. 

It is assumed that Jhangianis again moved and shifted to Hyderabad with Munshi Awatrai Malkani who lived in Chandiramani Ghitti near Malkani Ghitti. Later some of the Jhangianis shifted to Chandiramani Chari.  

Prominent amongst the Jhangianis: – Rai Bahadur Diwan Premchand Awatrai, Mr. Fatehchand Assudomal Advocate General and others.  



 Nukh: – Chhug. 

Nukh Chhug is shared in Hyderabad by Kirpalani, Shinghvani and Manglanis. Bhambhani and Karnani of Pad-Eedan also share the same Nukh. It is therefore assumed that the Chandiramanis migrated from Multan to Khudabad and then lived for a while in Sahiti and thereafter accompanied Munshi Awatrai Malkani to Hyderabad. Their Chandiramani Ghitti was located adjacent to Malkani Ghitti. 

Diwan Madandas’ family (of village Mori in district Chanejan) also call themselves Chandiramani.

A Reader writes (Dec 2004):

Hi aunty Shakun, I am trying to re-construct some of my family history but my knowledge goes back only 3 generations. We are Chandiramani’s – my dads name is Nari, his dad’s name is Jethandand and his dad’s name is Lilaram. My grandma is Sadhwani. Can you help dig up something on this. Jethanand had a brother Jivatram and all his descendants live in Dallas now – they are Chandiramanis too. I am eager to know more about our roots.

My Nani is called Devi Daswani – her mother is a Khiani – my maternal great grandma’s name is Kishni and my mother told me that she is from the Khiani family. 

My mother’s name is Laju she is the daughter of Purshotam Daryani, who  is the cousin of Kundan Sadarangani of Lagos who has a son called Pradeep. My great grandmothers name is called Sitabai Daryani – she was an icon in her day. Please let me know if we are connected somehow.`

I know that one of the members of the Khiani family too is married to the Lekhraj’s – my cousin Pushpa is married to Ashok Lekhraj of Cotton world.

 So I guess this is a very small world.

I am also related to the Melwanis –Kishoo Melwani (of  Indonesia ) now in  Bombay is married to my Dad’s sister Mohini Chandiramani so he is my uncle. I am trying to dig up some  info out of my dad as to our ancestors in Pakistan so that I can refer it to your website

And see where I get.


Andy Naraindas


CHANANI of Larkana: – Mr. Chanraimal.

 Nukh: – Pahuja.

 Jhangiani of Hyderabad have the same Nukh.

 There are two Chananis. Chanani’s of Larkana and Chanani’s of Hyderabad. 

There are families with same Pahuja Nukh in Punjab and are/were called Arorvanshi. They migrated from Aror, district Rohiri to Punjab and then to Kanpur during the 711 Arab invasion. They later returned to Sind and settled at Ratay Deray.

Diwan Chanraimal’s son Diwan Dolahmal was a commandant of Hyderabad Mir’s army. He had lost an arm fighting a battle. 

Diwan Dolahmal’s son Diwan Kalyandas was a zamindar. His son was named Diwan Nanosingh. It is from Diwan Nanosingh’s time that the Chananis have added ‘Singh’ to their name. It is assumed that the emissaries of Guru Gobind Singh, who had visited Upper Sind, had casted their influence on them. 

Some Chananis were zamindars, while others ventured in to business and some into service.

Diwan Nanosingh though a zamindar looked after his ancestral land. He was well versed in Government law and regulations and gave free assistance to those who sought his advice. He had three sons: M/s. Udhosingh, Budhosingh and Khubsingh. 

Diwan Bhudhosingh and his son Diwan Sabusingh confined themselves to zamindari. His other son Diwan Sajansingh (1894-1932) was a Police Inspector and helped the needy to procure jobs and employment. His younger brother was a Doctor and operated a charitable Hospital.

Diwan Sajansingh’s eldest son Diwan Sundersingh in 1946 was Police Sub. Inspector. 

Diwan Nanosingh’s sons: Diwan Udhosingh and Diwan Khubsingh were zamindars.

Diwan Khubsingh was born on Dec. 1 1913 at Ratay Deray. After passing his 5th grade he went to Hyderabad and stayed with his nephew Diwan Sajansingh. After passing Matric (O level) he joined College. While still in Inter Arts, Diwan Sabusingh and Diwan Jasansingh expired. This compelled Diwan Khubsingh to abandon his studies and return Ratay Deray to look after his farms. While Diwan Khubsingh was still a child, he had lost both his parents. He believed in God All Mighty to be his parents and had acquired great interest in religious books.

Diwan Khubsingh then became a follower of Bhai Vasanram and of Sain Paru Shah’s Darbar at Rohiri.

The aftermath of 1940-1941 Sakhar riots had spread to Larkana District. Diwan Khubsingh organized a Peace Squad that patrolled the streets. He, Diwan Khubsingh provided relief to the families that had fled Sakhar and taken refuge at Ratay Deray. Those who could not escape and had locked themselves inside their houses were rescued by him.

In 1946, Upper Sind faced floods and Diwan Khubsingh again did his part. Non cleaning of streets and garbage removal had become a health problem in Ratay Deray. Diwan Khubsingh rushed to Larkana and recruited sweepers. To keep flood water at bay, he constructed bunds (embankment) in the streets. Telegraphic wire had snapped and Diwan Khubsingh got it repaired at his own expense by going to Sakhar and meeting the superintendent of the Telegraph office.

For service to community, the Markhiani Panchayat through the hands of the Collector of Larkana awarded Diwan Khubsingh with a gold medal.

Any disputes amongst the residents of Ratay Deray were referred to Diwan Khubsingh for settlement. In 1946, a Hindu woman had absconded from her home, but Diwan Khubsingh with the help of Muslim zamindars rescued her.

 Famous Bandit Nazir Bhutto, who for a year and half was wanted for various crimes by the police, was caught with the assistance of Diwan Khubsingh. The ‘Daily Sind News’ had carried the article in their March 5th 1946 issue.

This 33-year-old (1946) young zamindar, Diwan Khubsingh, had created a name for himself.


CHANANI of Hyderabad: – Diwan Chanrai. 

 Nukh: – Sachdev.

There are two Chananis. Chanani’s of Larkana and Chanani’s of Hyderabad. 

Chanani and Tolani are two branches of one tree i.e. Diwan Shewakram and they have same Nukh.

Chananis are originally Arorvanshi. During the 711 Arab invasion their ancestors left Aror (Alwar) and migrated to Punjab. Later they returned to settle first at Chandka District Larkana, and then at Hyderabad. 

Chanani’s forefather was Diwan Shewakram. His son Diwan Tolaram was the forefather of the Tolanis. 

Diwan Tolaram had five sons: M/s. Motiram, Panjumal, Hiranand, Pahlajrai and Maharchand.

Diwan Hiranand’s son was Diwan Chanrai, who was the forefather of Chananis of Hyderabad. 

Only Diwan Maharchand and his descendants identified themselves as ‘Tolani’, while others call themselves ‘Chanani’. 

Diwan Chanrai was a disciple of Bawa Nangi Gangaram Udasi. Bawa Nangi had come to Hyderabad in the year 1804 and expired in 1824. It is said that it was with the blessings of Bawa Nangi Gangaram Udasi that Diwan Chanrai was blessed with six sons: 

1) Diwan Sobhraj,  

2) Diwan Nanikbux was Mukhtiarkar (Revenue Officer). Amongst his sons was Diwan Gianchand and others.

3) Diwan Biharimal and his son Rai Sahib Diwan Bhupatrai, Diwan 

    Rijhumal and others, 

4) Diwan Girdharimal,  

5) Diwan Gobindbux and his sons Diwan Bherumal, Diwan Vasanmal and others, 

6) Diwan Mohanlal from whose roots were born Diwan Khubchand

    Jethmal BA, Head Master of Hyderabad High School and others.

Initially these Chananis were barred from consuming liqueur and at happy occasions and functions like weddings and marriages they consumed ‘Panjtol’ (‘Bhang’ made with sugar and spices). But with times all that changed.    



 Nukh: – Chhetya.

The author Diwan Bherumal M. Advani writes that it appears that Chhetyas were soldiers. From where they hailed, is not known. 

Chhetyas do not marry any one from their mother’s family (Maternal) nukh.

Prominent amongst the Chhetya Nukh were: 

Sant (saint-pious) Chaganram Nalero, zamindar of Village Khokhran in district Larkana. He was follower of Sain Vilayatram and renounced zamindari to devote time praying to God and Bhakti (devotion). 

Mukhi Sitaldas and Seth Gokaldas of village Bosnan were zamindars with large holdings. 

Seth Sabumal of Ratay Deray was Mukhi of the panchayat. 

Jhamnanis and other families under the same Nukh were traders having business at Sakhar and in frontier areas of upper Sind.

It is said that Seth Hassaram Jhamnani did not have any child. A holy man (Sant- Saint) blessed him and he soon became father of a son whom he named ‘Foto’ (Cardamom).  

Seth Hassaram was a zamindar and due to certain land boundary disputes with his neighbors, he got involved in a long drawn litigation that forced him to sell his land.   

Mr. Fotaram had to seek employment for survival. He found work with the Vadera’s (Chief/Head of Village), in their Modikhano (Grain storage Dept). Later he got married and when his children grew up he left the job and devoted his entire time to God. People called him Sant. Sant Fotaram even in his advanced age woke up early in the morning to pray and sing bhajans (devotional songs). 

Seth Kanyalal, son of Sant Fotaram was involved in the freedom struggle and considered himself as a soldier of Swaraj (Self-Rule – Independence.) His call of the day was “JAI HIND”.  


DADLANI: – Mr. Dadlomal. 

Nukh: – Tana Thakar.

Dadlani’s are Darya Panthies (Lord of the Sea/River). Their ancestors came to Sind from Multan and spoke Farsi (Persian) as well. 

Some of the Dadlanis worked as Munshis with the Mir at Mirpur Matheli, Kherpur and Larkana and were identified as Amils. 

A few of them bought land at Village Dhamrah near Larkana to cultivate. At the time of British take over of Sind, a misunderstanding and serious dispute arose between the Dadlanis zamindars and other zamindars of Dhamrah that lead to murders and killings effecting both sides. 

Around sixty Dadlani families then moved out and shifted to Gharwah, Larkana. The locality where they stayed was named Dhamrahi (people from Dhamrah) Paro. 

The Dadlanis at Larkana were zamindars. Some of them diversified and became Lawyers, traders and some joined Government service.

Those Dadlanis, who had lived at Mirpur Matheli, moved to Hyderabad in search for work and lived in Khatubandan Ghitti. Over the years Dadlanis became traders and some ventured overseas to be called Sindworkees.

During the German Second World War, the Japanese occupied Borneo, Indonesia. They looted Sindworkee shops and killed many Sindworkees. Amongst those killed were Seth Balramdas Dadlani and Seth Lilaram Dadlani. 

Mr. Dadlomal the elder of Dadlani’s sired Diwan Motiram. Diwan Motiram had two sons: Diwan Jaromal and Diwan Jhamandas. 

Diwan Jaromal sired Diwan Gahisingh who sired Diwan Sangatrai. Diwan Sangatrai sired Hassasingh who sired Diwan Bhagwandas. 

Diwan Jhamandas’ son was Diwan Joharmal. Diwan Joharmal sired Diwan Mulchand who sired Diwan Mulchand. Diwan Mulchand sired Diwan Naraindas, who was alive in the year 1946. 

Diwan Naraindas’ son Diwan Chuharmal sired Dr. Gobindram C. Dadlani who along with Mr. Kishinchand “Bewas” (a pen name meaning helpless) was in the year 1946, working in his Hospital. 



Nukh: – Dhonga. 

Radhkrishnanis are Bhatias. (see Bhatia)

The Radhkrishnanis migrated from Jaisalmer and settled at Shikarpur.  


‘The Source of Sindhi Surnames’ is a translation into English, by Mr. Narain Sobhraj Kimatrai from the original in Sindhi by Mr. Diwan Bherumal Mahirchand Advani