Nukh: 10.0pt;font-family:”Bookman Old Style””> Chach-ra.
Jagtianis are Nukh cousins of Lalwani and Uttamsingh of Hyderabad. They are Diwans.
Panjabi Jagtianis migrated to Sind from Punjab. They are named after their great grandfather Seth Jagatrai.
Prominent amongst this family was Seth Chandumal, who during the Mir’s reign (year 1835) was a jeweler. The Mirs were fond of jewelry and honored Seth Chandumal with a title: “By Appointment, Jewelers to the Mirs”.
Seth Chandumal had six sons: M/s. Hundomal, Udhavdas, Ghanshamdas, Tirthdas, Kundomal and Verhomal. Their firm was known as “M/s. V. Kundandas Chandumal”. In the year 1947, they had branches at Hyderabad, Karachi and Bombay.
Seth Kundomal expired in 1942 at the age of 65 years. He had two sons, Bhai Khemchand and Bhai Pitamberdas. The shop at Hyderabad was looked after by Bhai Khemchand and Karachi shop at ‘Mitho Dar’ by Bhai Pitamberdas.
Seth Kundomal’s brother Seth Verhomal was born in 1885. He expired at the age of 42 in 1927.
Seth Verhomal had two sons: M/s. Parsram and Jairamdas. Seth Parsram looked after the Bombay office. The Karachi branch located in the Elphinstone Street was managed by Seth Jairamdas.
Jethras were scattered all over the Sind. Notanis of Bhareen, Jethanis of village Khahi Qasam, District Navsheri Firoz and Gianchandanis of Tharoo Shah have the same Nukh. Jethras lived at Mori, Sikrand, Hyderabad, Mirpur Khas, Bobak, Larkana and other places.
There was a saying: “Jethra Gad Na Vethra”. Meaning Jethras did not group together.
Diwan Rochiram Jesalram, retired Mukhtiarkar and others called themselves Jethra. In the year 1947 there were nine Jethra families living in Larkana. Jethras are worshipers of Devi Mata and do not consume onion and garlic.
Ambwani, Bhagwanani, Keswani and Mulchandani are Nukh cousins of Jethwanis. It is said that in some battle that their ancestors fought, they ran short of ammunition and used kakar (pebbles) instead. Hence the name Kukreja, i.e. Kakriwara.
Jethwani’s ancestors came to Sind from Punjab and settled at Kherpur. Their first cousins are Bhagwanani of Kherpur.
Diwan Jethmal, after whom the Jethwanis are named, was Bhagwanani. One of his family member was married in to the family of Diwan Mansukhdas Awatramani of Tharoo Shah. The member expired leaving behind his widow and an infant son. The widow along with the child left Kherpur and returned to her parent’s house at Tharoo Shah. Jethwanis of Tharoo Shah are descendants of that widow and her son.
In 1947, surviving amongst the Jethwanis were Master Alimchand Sachanand postmaster of Navsheri Firoz and his brothers Mr. Sukhramdas and Mr. Dayaram.
Chawlas are Arorvanshi. During the Arab invasion their ancestors left Aror (Alwar) and migrated to Punjab. Later some of them returned to Sind and settled at Larkana, Sakhar, Thhato and Shikarpur. Chawlas were amongst the first Hindus to settle at Shikarpur.
Chhablani having Khathoria as their Nukh migrated to Sind from Punjab. Some of them went to Shikarpur and others to Khudabad and then to Hyderabad.
Some say that Ajwani, Bhavnani, Jagtiani, and Gidwani are cousins. But it is not so as their Nukh is Manchanda. Even Motwanis (Diwan Basantram and others) are Manchanda.
The great grandfather of Chhablani was Diwan Sabaldas (Chhabaldas) who, it is said was fond of all the good things in life. He loved to eat rich food.
It is said that Diwan Chhablani’s family was very wealthy and well to do. They had a large herd of cattle that gave them abundant quantity of milk. The saying goes to say that after one of the daughters-in-laws washed her feet with milk their wealth decreased and Maya (Laxmi = Money) departed.
There are two branches of Chhablani. One branch lived alongside the Shivdasanis of Gosain Surajgar Ghitti and the other along side the Sipahmalanis. In 1947, the Chhablanis of both the branches lived at Hirabad (Hyderabad) and at Karachi. The Chhablani of Gosain Surajgar Ghitti and Shivdasanis had a common panchayat and a community hall that in the year 1947 was in dilapidated condition.
From the Gosain Surajgar Ghitti Chhablanis came Diwan Bhorsingh. His sons: Diwan Hassomal and Diwan Chetanram. Both were Advocates. Diwan Hassomal was Mukhtiarkar (District Administrator) appointed by the Mirs.
After the British takeover, the Mirs were to be deported to Calcutta and at their (Mirs) request Diwan Hassomal was permitted by the British to accompany them. In 1857, on his return journey from Calcutta, Diwan Hassomal was injured in a scuffle.
From Diwan Hassomal’s family: Mr. Naraindas Ramchand Chhablani MA and others.
From the other branch of Chhablani, Diwan Vishindas Mukhtiarkar. His two sons: Diwan Thawardas and Diwan Bulchand. Both were zamindars.
Diwan Vishindas’ brother was Diwan Ghanshamdas. He also had two sons: Diwan Lalchand Mukhtiarkar and Diwan Kotumal Forester (Forest Officer). Diwan Lalchand Mukhtiarkar was a honest and God fearing man. He expired at Amar Kot.
Amongst the Chhablanis, the family of Mr. Parmanand Chetanram was also prominent.
Those Chhablanis who lived next to the Sipahmalanis, respected their customs and participated with them in all the functions, even though their Nukh was different i.e. Nagdev. Sipahmalanis considered them as member of the same Bradri.
Prominent amongst the Chhablani was Diwan Bahardinomal Majlasrai who had two sons: Diwan Dayaram and Diwan Lekhraj.
Diwan Lekhraj had four sons: M/s. Parmanand, Hashmatrai, Mangharam and Bulchand.
Mr. Parmanand, a medical doctor, was connected with Hyderabad’s Civil and other Municipal Hospitals. His son Mr. Satsaran, was in 1947, professor of Economics with D. J. Sind College at Karachi.
Mr. Hashmatrai was born in 1889 and expired in the year 1934. Right from the young age he was brilliant. While still in school, he received ‘Middle School Scholarship’. On reaching High School, he received ‘High School’ and ‘Sind Scholarships.
Mr. Hashmatrai stood first in the University exams as well. He had chosen Physics, Chemistry, History, and Economics as his subjects. In the year 1911, after doing his BA, he passed M.Sc. and again stood first in the University exam and won ‘Tilang Gold Medal’.
Mr. Hashmatrai was a professor at B. B. College in Bihar, D. A. V. College Lahore, Jaswant College Jodhpur, and Benaras Hindu University and at Elphinstone College Bombay. He was Principal of Hyderabad’s Dayaram Gidumal National College as well. Later, Professor Hashmatrai was appointed head of Delhi University’s Economics Department. In 1929, Professor Hashmatrai became member of Govt. of India’s ‘Banking Inquiry Committee’.
An issue arose to separate Sind from Bombay Presidency. Professor Hashmatrai opposed the proposal. He, Professor Hashmatrai was a very good narrator and fluent in English and Sindhi. He awakened the Hindus and brought to their notice that though the Hindus were in minority in Sind, yet they contributed a major chunk in taxes to Sind’s exchequer. If Sind separated, contribution for the shortfall from Bombay’s exchequer would stop and the same would have to be borne by the Hindus as they being the trading community, would have to be the sole contributors. He vigorously pleaded against the separation.
Professor Hashmatrai published a book in English giving facts and figures showing the amount of money Bombay Presidency had contributed to meet Sind’s shortfall since 1847. The figures awakened the Governments at Bombay and Delhi.
With the publication of his book, Prof. Chhablani became famous overnight throughout India.
A round table conference was to be held at London, and Prof. Chhablani was deputed by the British Indian Govt. to express his views. It was at this conference that decision took place to separate Sind from Bombay effective 1936 with the understanding that any shortfall in Sind’s budget would be met by the Govt. of India Delhi.
Prof. Chhablani wrote many books concerning the currency, banking and internal problems of India. He also wrote on ‘History of England’ in two volumes. Diwan Bherumal M. Advani, the author, had translated the same in to Sindhi and in 1947 they were textbooks in the schools.
Prof. Hashmatrai L. Chhablani was responsible for the creation of Karachi’s Model High School and a Municipal School that was named after him. Khudabadi Amil Panchayat’s Hospital on Karachi’s Bunder Road was also named after him.
Mr. Mangharam was born in 1896. He passed his BA in 1917 and taught at Govt. owned S. T. C. D. College at Bombay. In 1921 he received First Class Diploma. After passing his B.A., he joined the Education Dept. While teaching at Karachi’s Govt. High School, Mr. Mangharam passed his M.A. In 1926, with the help of his brother Prof. Hashmatrai, he established Karachi’s Model High School and was its Principal. In 1936, Mr. Mangharam inaugurated Wadhumal Bulchand High School at Karachi on Bunder Road Extension. The following year he added a primary School to it. In 1947, Mr. Chandiram Bulchand Advani was its Principal.
Mr. Mangharam was President of Head Masters Association at Karachi and Vice President of Karachi’s Boy Scout Association. In 1947, he was Secretary of Indian Girls High School Karachi. He was Hon. Secretary of Karachi’s Education Advancement Society and of Female Education Society. Mr. Mangharam was in 1947, treasurer and member of the managing committee of Karachi’s Hyderabad Amil Panchayat, and had written many books.
Mr. Hassaram Parmanand Chhablani, the retired Engineer, was in fact a Mirchandani, but had changed his surname to Chhablani. He was grandson of Munshi Adomal Mirchandani.
Chhatwanis are from Rohiri. Their forefather Seth Chhatomal was born at Rohiri. He started his career as a jeweler in the State of Kherpur but changed his vocation and moved on to Hyderabad where he started a Wine Distillery.
In 1843, British forces occupied Sind and in the year 1887 British Government installed their own Distillery at Kotri and that led to closure of all privately owned distilleries. Seth Chhatomal expired the next year (1888). While at Hyderabad, he lived in Diwan Jhuromal Ghitti and had maintained his contacts with Rohiri and Sakhar.
Seth Chhatomal had one son named Mr. Tarachand who married into Chandwani family of Old Sakhar. Living at Hyderabad, Seth Chhatomal had his two daughters married into Amils.
Mr. Tarachand Chhatomal’s son Mr. Mulchand was born in 1872 in Jhuremalani Ghitti. He passed the ‘Committee Exam’ in Sindhi. (British Government needed local Sindhi graduates. They introduced ‘Committee Examination”, that was also known as ‘Public Service Commission Exam’. Certificates were awarded to successful candidates signed by the Education Inspector. This made them eligible for lower grade Govt. jobs with a starting salary of Rupees Twenty-five. The Certificate was called ‘Second Class Certificate’).
Mr. Mulchand spent two years at the Training College and qualified for teachers job in Sindhi Schools. He taught at Navalrai Hiranand Academy’s Sindhi Schools and also at Hyderabad’s Municipal Schools. Author Diwan Bherumal M. Advani states that his brother Mr. Thawardas M. Advani also taught at the Municipal School near Qilo and through him he had the opportunity to make acquaintance with Mr. Mulchand.
Diwan Bherumal further writes that between the years 1890 and 1894, the three of them (Mr. Mulchand, Mr. Thawardas and Diwan Bherumal) met every evening and visited Sain (respectful) Kesoram and Sain Hariram Sufi’s Tikano (Gurdwara) at Sipahmalani Ghitti to hear the Katha (recitals) and participate in the Arti. After the Arti, Master Mulchand sang and recited Sufi Qalams.
Master Mulchand had five sons. His second son Mr. Lakhimal had passed his M.A. and was Head Master of Rohiri Municipal High School. He had (in 1947) three sons who were in service.
Bhagwanani, Keswani, Mulchandani, Ambwani and Jethwani have same Nukh. The are all Arorvanshi.
Chhuganis are followers of Sikhism. From Punjab they migrated to Kherpur Mir Sahib where the Mirs appointed them as Diwans.
Due to British take over they shifted to Ratay Deray near Larkana and constructed their own village called ‘Panjo Deray’. Chhuganis were originally zamindars and as time went by some of them got educated and became Advocates, Doctors and some took up employment.
In the year 1918, the male members of ‘Panjo Deray’ had gone to ‘Bangal Deray’ to attend a Panchayat election and had left behind an 83 year old Diwan Kiratrai Hardaram Chhugani to look after the village. Taking advantage of the situation a band of dacoits raided the village and killed the Diwan. After this tragedy the Chhuganis moved to Larkana.
Diwan Chhagomal Bindomal, after whom the Chhugani’s are named, had five sons. Diwan Kiratrai Hardaram Chhugani was Chhagomal’s grandson.
The Khubchandanis, prior to coming to Hyderabad, lived at Khudabad. Khosas (a caste among the Muslims) burnt Khudabad in 1759 that resulted in Khubchandanis leaving the city and moving to Tilty, District Saywan accompanied by their distant cousins Tahilramanis.
Later, during the Mirs reign, Hyderabad developed and Khubchandanis moved again to live at Aktaraiee Ghitti, where those who had earlier migrated from ‘Aktar’ lived.
Having come from Tilty, the Khubchandanis were at first called Tiltiyani and identified as Khudabadi Amils. Their children married into Amils.
The other Hindus from Aktaraiee Ghitti were considered Bhaibunds and they had their own panchayat.
From Diwan Khubchands roots was Diwan Rahumal. His (Diwan Rahumal) son Diwan Khanchand was editor of ‘Sind Sudhar’ that was the first Sindhi newspaper to be published in Sind. From 1884 to 1887, Sadhu Hiranand was its editor and Diwan Khanchand later took over from him. Unfortunately, the paper shut down in mid nineteen forties.
Prominent amongst the Khubchandanis, in 1947, were Diwan Issardas, Diwan Sahsanmal and others.
KHUBCHANDANI (2): –
Due to partition of India, the Author, Diwan Bherumal M. Advani was not able to gather sufficient data on these Khubchandanis. Diwan Hotchand Nenumal Khubchandani had written a volume ‘Present History of Sindworkees’ that Diwan Bherumal has incorporated in his volumes. (Please read ‘History of present (1947) Sindworkees’ in ‘SIND JAY HINDUN JEE TAREEKH’, part two, chapter four that has been translated into English by the translator).
Dudanis migrated from Punjab and settled at Larkana, Kanber, Nasserabad and Hyderabad. Their forefather Sardar Doda Singh was related to Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Punjab. Some differences arose within the family that led to Sardar Doda Singh and his family leaving Punjab.
After their arrival in Sind, an issue arose amongst Sardar Doda Singh and his four sons as to whether they should shave and cut their hairs and become ‘Mona’ (clean-shaven Sikh) or not. Unable to resolve the issue, they separated.
One brother went to Larkana, while other went to Kanber. The third left for Nasserabad and fourth went to Hyderabad. They all called themselves Dudani.
Dudanis of Kanber were zamindars and were considered as Bhaibunds. Bhai Manghosingh and Bhai Mohansingh were Mukhis of Kanber.
Some Dudanis of Larkana worked as Munshis (manager) to the Mirs. When the British rule came, they worked as Munshis for them as well and were identified as Amils or Diwans.
Diwan Surat Singh and after him his son Diwan Karam Singh were Mukhis of Larkana, who were the descendants of Gurdin Singh son of Doda Singh. After the death of Diwan Karam Singh, the panchayat nominated Diwan Kimat Singh to take charge as Mukhi, but he declined the seat in favour of Diwan Menghraj, who was a Mona.
Diwan Kimat Singh son of Lakha Singh Dudani was a schoolteacher and was fluent in Farsi (Persian). Diwan Chandumal Advani of Hyderabad was a Daftardar (Revenue Officer – Registrar) at Sakhar and did not have any distinction between Hyderabadi or Non Hyderabadis and Amil or Bhaibund, so long as the person was capable and worthy of the post. He got Diwan Kimat Singh recruited with the Revenue Department.
Diwan Kimat Singh proved his worthiness and rose to the rank of First Grade Mukhtiarkar (District Administrator) and later as Acting Deputy Collector. He had seven sons:
1) Diwan Jessa Singh.
2) Diwan Prem Singh. He sired two sons: Mr. Moti Singh and Mr. Rewa Singh, both worked with the Engineering Dept.
3) Diwan Kewal Singh. He sired Mr. Teck Singh and Mr. Kalyan Singh. Mr. Kalyan Singh had a welding workshop.
4) Diwan Choith Singh retired Accountant. He sired three sons.
Mr. Shanker Singh who was a clerk in the Sind Secretariat and two other sons.
5) Diwan Verho Singh BA, LL.B. Advocate. Diwan Verho Singh was for 21 years Larkana’s Municipal Counselor and 3 years it’s Vice president. He was awarded Coronation Medal. His daughter, in 1947, was in college studying Science.
6) Diwan Sahib Singh, was an Advocate and Municipal Counselor for
many years. In his memory, a clock tower was constructed in Gandhi Baug.
7) Diwan Kodu Singh was a graduate and taught at Larkana English School. His son Mr. Gurdin Singh was a clerk with Sind Secretariat.
Three other sons of Diwan Kodu Singh, were in 1947, still studying.
Diwan Jessa Singh, the eldest son of Diwan Kimat Singh, was born in 1866. With hard work and zeal, Diwan Jessa Singh proved his worth and capability. He rose to the rank of Deputy Collector and retired in the year 1916.
Diwan Jessa Singh was a pious and religious man. He expired on Jan. 3rd 1932. He had 3 sons: (1) Dr. Keso Singh M.B.B.S. Eye Specialist, (2) Mr. Chuhar Singh Advocate who was known in college as Chuhar Singh Kimatsinghani and (3) Doctor Sobh Singh.
Diwan Kimat Singh Dudani was teacher in Larkana’s Sindhi School. Along with him teaching in the same school was Master Diwan Ailmal Kundanmal, father of Diwan Chatursingh Advocate and Rai Bahadur Diwan Jagatsingh, retired Collector of Hyderabad. They both were good friends and very close to one another.
Two of Diwan Kimatsingh’s sons, Diwan Jessasingh and Diwan Kewalsingh, married Master Ailmal’s daughters.
Diwan Chatursingh Advocate, son of Master Ailmal, married twice. His second marriage was with the sister of Diwan Gobindbux Lakhmichand Dudani. At the instance of Diwan Chatursingh Advocate, author Diwan Bherumal’s son Late Diwan Pribhdas a.k.a. Harnamsingh married Diwan Gobindbux’s daughter.
Diwan Gobindbux spent the last few years of his life at Sakhar and expired on 12th August 1946 at the age of 76. He had two sons, Mr. Chetanram born in 1905, who was Civil Engineer and worked as overseer at Sakhar Barrage and Mr. Verhomal born in 1915, an Electrical Engineer and proprietor of Moti Electric & Radio Company at Larkana.
Besides the above named Dudanis, there were others in Larkana viz. Mr. Anand Kumar, Acting Sub. Judge Rohiri. His Nukh was also ‘Harjpal’ but his roots do not reflect in the Dudani family tree.
It is said that during the Mirs reign, an ancestor of Mr. Anand Kumar working as an employee in the jail, helped a political prisoner escape. The Jail employee was caught and sentenced to death on Dassera day. Since then, these Dudanis don’t celebrate Dassera.
It was during the same time that the Dudanis of Hyderabad migrated to Gareli district Larkana. Bhai Morosingh the elder Dudani, was a zamindar and a grain merchant. From Gareli they moved to Larkana and lived in Dudani paro (street).
Bhai Morosingh’s son Bhai Sobhraj had four sons. The eldest son Mr. Menghraj was called Diwan and was the Mukhi of all Larkana Dudanis.
Mukhi Menghraj’s son Mr. Lokram was a postmaster. His son was Dr. Gunomal. Dr. Gunomal’s son Mr. Anand Kumar, Acting Sub. Judge, had resigned from his post in 1947.
Dhanjanis lived at Kotri district Halla. The author Diwan Bherumal writes that though the city of Kotri had lost its importance, the name ‘Kotri’ will always remain evergreen in the mind, as it was here that Shah Abdul Latif married the daughter of the Hakim (ruler) of Kotri.
It is said that there were three brothers living at Kotri at that time. Mr. Dhanji, Mr. Sadhan and a third brother whose name the author was unable to trace.
Mr. Dhanji’s descendants are called Dhanjani and lived at Kotri. His brother Mr. Sadhan moved to village Khando near Bhat Shah, and his descendants are called Sidhnani.
Mr. Dhanji was commonly called Dhanji Shah. He had two sons: M/s. Sukhyo and Madan. Bhai Madan was a Bhagat and a pious man. He was a friend and household member of Shah Abdul Latif.
In 1947 there were only one or two Dhanjani households at village Khando as the others had moved out. The successor to the seat of Swami Teoram Bhagat at Tando Adam was a Dhanjani.
Dhermalanis are from Halla Paranan. They lived in Sahtan Jo Paro along with Tilani, Dheromalani, Garibdasani, Khatar, Manshiani and Hiranandani. They are followers of Gosain and worship Devi Mata.
Prominent amongst them are Diwan Kirparam Mukhtiarkar (District Administrator) and his son Diwan Molram Deputy Collector.
Dhodeja are Lohanas (see Lohana and Arorvanshi chapters). Lohana’s are descendants of Shree Ramachandra’s son Lava. Colonel Todd in his volume ‘History of Rajistan’, has made a mention of a ruler by the name of Dhoda who lived during the 6th century. Dhoda was a son of an ordinary Sardar (chieftain) who had through his gallantry ruled over his State that was near the present cities of Jaisalmer and Bhawalpur. His descendants carry his name viz.; Dhodeja i.e. children of Dhoda.
Raja Dhoda had twelve sons. But after his death, the sons fought amongst themselves and lost every thing.
Detailed information of Dhodeja family was not available, but in the History of Rajastan there is mention of a Senapati (Commander in Chief) Dhoda noted for his bravery.
In 1947, there were Dhodeja families living at Amritsar, Multan, Lower Punjab, Bhawalpur and Shikarpur.
There were around 200 households of Dhodejas in Shikarpur. Out of 200, 50 households belonged to the descendants of Bhai Santdas Dhodeja.
Living at Shikarpur during the eighteenth century was a wealthy merchant by the name of Bhai Santdas Rahindas. His son Bhai Tarachand was manufacturer and fabricator of Brass and Copper utensils, employing around 30 to 40 persons. His was the Mukhi (chairman) of the Association of Fabricators. Bhai Tarachand’s utensils were renowned throughout the Sind, Qalat, Kandhar and Iran.
Bhai Tarachand had seven sons: M/s. Lekhraj, Chellaram, Pessumal, Jeomal (Jairamdas), Dedharam, Topandas and Bulchand.
Bhai Lekhraj had spent most of his time in Quetta trading with Pathans from Kandhar, Chaman and Qalat. He was a religious man and expired in the year 1921.
The other four sons of Bhai Tarachand: Bhai Chellaram, Bhai Jeomal (Jairamdas), Bhai Dedharam and Bhai Topandas also traveled to Bilakh Bukhare, Samarkandh and Yarkandh for business. Having made their wealth, Bhai Tarachand, Bhai Chellaram, Bhai Jeomal and Bhai Dedharam returned to Sind and started their own business. Bhai Topandas stayed back at Bilakh Bukhare and spent fourteen years there.
Money was transferred or remitted by mode of ‘Hundies’ (bill of exchange) (Hawala). No cash was carried on person. Money was paid in exchange for a hand written Hundi (note) to a Shikarpuri Seth (Shroff) in one city and collected in cash from another Seth (Shroff) in another city. These Shroffs had their offices in China, Java, Sumatra, Iran, Iraq, Russia, Bukhare, Yaarkand, and Samarkand.
Bhai Topandas, on his return to Sind from Bukhare, had brought some Russian currency (Rubbles) notes that turned out to be worthless as due to Russian revolution the old currency notes issued by the Czars ceased to be legal tender and became worthless. These currency notes were then used as wallpaper in Shikarpur.
Bhai Topandas and Bhai Dedharam along with his seven sons, their wives perished in the 1935 Quetta earthquake. Only two daughters survived. The daughters got married around the year 1946.
Bhai Pessumal, son of Bhai Tarachand, was an intellectual man. He was fond of reading and learning specially Sanskrit. He did his Matriculation in Sanskrit when the medium of teaching in those days was Farsi (Persian). The University appointed Maratha Pundits to check his papers. Despite this, Bhai Pessumal passed out.
Pundits in Sind acknowledged Bhai Pessumal’s knowledge of Sanskrit and consulted him for sorting out their difficulties in the language. Bhai Pessumal’s object was to propagate Sanskrit. At Larkana, he opened a night school that taught Hindi.
To propagate Hindi, in 1915 Bhai Pessumal organized the first Hindi conference. This let to Sanskrit consciousness and schools teaching Hindi and Sanskrit became popular throughout the upper Sind. Bhai Pessumal was secretary of ‘Sudhar Sabha’ and president of many institutions.
Towards the end of nineteenth century, Bhai Pessumal passed his Law, and practiced for 35 years. Bhai Pessumal dressed as Diwan in Mir’s attire and was popularly called Diwan Pessumal. He was the Secretary and for some time President of Larkana Bar Association. He had a lucrative practice and refused Judgeship offers. Diwan Pessumal, a pious and philanthropic man expired in 1931.
Diwan Pessumal had five sons: M/s. Kaniyalal, Lokram, Karamchand, Ramchand and Madhavdas. Bhai Kaniyalal, also a pious man, was a cotton merchant cum broker at Karachi in 1947.
Bhai Lokram worked for 12 years with Lloyds Bank and thereafter opened a stationary shop in Karachi that he had to dispose off due to eviction caused by partition of India.
Bhai Lokram had a Glass factory located near Hyderabad Railway Station by the name of ‘Indian Glass works’ in partnership with his brother Diwan Karamchand. The factory employed around 600 persons, manufacturing around 250 different types of bottles, and water glasses. The products made in the factory were not only sold in Sind but also exported to Bombay, Jodhpur, Udaipur, Ajmer, Kathiawar, Gujarat, Madras, Delhi, Rawalpindi, Peshawar, Iran, Afghanistan and Africa. The factory was professionally managed.
Diwan Karamchand passed his B.A. (Eng.) and joined the Government service as an engineer. He was posted at Quetta. After serving eight years, he resigned in 1942 and joined his Sala (brother in law, wife’s brother) Seth Piyarelal Valechha in business. Diwan Karamchand had not accepted any dowry on his marriage.
Bhai Ramchand, the fourth son of Diwan Pessumal, had his own business and the fifth son Mr. Madhavdas BA, worked as a Secretary with the Indian Glass Works, Hyderabad.
Based on some historical hear say as narrated by our Elders in the Family from time to time when probed : “Somewhere around 1100 AD due to religious persecution in the region of then Persia, large groups of Hindus started to migrate by Sea route from Port Bander Abbas in Iran to Gwadar port then (British India now in Pakistan) and from there on to the port of Dwarka and probably took the land route in search of food & land to settle.
They ended up settling in the region of Siddhapur and Patan (now places in Gujarat), probably after being granted amnesty by the regional ruler’s and warlords of that time. It, was also said that the migratory groups were professional high caste Hindu’s and known for their fighting skills, due to the very up-bringing in the harsh dessert conditions. But, it was also said that they were excellent traders as well.
The first identity of this migratory Hindu Persians was given as ‘Jaisingh’ by the then ruler Raja Siddharaj Jaysinh sometime between 1120-1150 AD. Jaysinh or Jaising was a name given to these settlers which in turn meant “Hail the Desert Lions”.
There was a violent cross movement from Gujarat to Rajasthan areas in the period between 1140 to 1530 AD. Around 1750 a British Cavalry officer on a routine moment found these clans in migration under very difficult conditions, he then established contacts with his seniors and camped along with them till he was able to get his superiors to find some land to settle these groups as according to him, he found them to be of a well established and groomed society.
As, narrated this clan was identified as “SURYAVANSHI RAJPUT KSHATRIYA’S” . The Maharaja’s of Rajasthan are SURYAVANSHI’s. Over the next about 50 years this community settled in by British consent in Sind. The pattern of language, culture had by this time undergone vast changes from being Hindu Persians, to Gujarati’s then on to Rajasthani’s and now into Sindhis.
Elders told some of us that our forefathers carried arms which were then consigned in a well during the peaceful period of settlement. Thereby, giving up their past history and started leading their lives as traders. There are old pictures of Sindhi’s carrying arms. Also there are pictures of Sindhi ladies wearing sari’s in Parsi style. Why is the Sindhi script called “Farsi “ script written very similar to the Persian script, not by choice but by the very influence of the culture from Persia.
Our forefathers mostly wore yellow coloured turbans – a typical cultural upbringing during their time spent in decades in Rajasthan. Our elderly Mother’s had their names ending with ‘Devi’ or ‘Bai’ – again a typical culture of Rajasthan. Now on to our family group. The British chose the then head of the Jaisingh clan, who was three generations ahead of the last known head of the present family.
Our family Tree shows our forefathers lived in ‘Store Ganj Haveli’ in Shikarpur – who built it and when was it built ? ‘Haveli’s were built and used to accommodate large and extended families to live together under one roof – a practice of the bygone era. Records of 1923 (Samvat 1980) show my forefathers who recorded their family as possibly the 5th Generation in the Jaising lineage. The record shows the name written as JAISING without the ‘H’.
I assume it as 5th generation allowing for shorter spans of life in that period, early marriages and early mortality due to lack of medical help in the surrounding harsh areas they lived in. In continuation together with my first cousins I assume therefore I am probably the 11th generation in the Jaising Family without knowing the names of the forefathers of the 5th generation of Bhau Narsingdas Jaising. There are missing links in our transition history. In the exodus from Rajasthan to the point of our final place of settlement in Sindh
‘The Source of Sindhi Surnames’ is a translation into English, by Mr. Narain Sobhraj Kimatrai from the original in Sindhi by Mr. Diwan Bherumal Mahirchand Advani