Chapter 7

Chapter 7  

AILSINGHANI

UTTAMSINGH

AMARNANI

ISRANI

BATHIJA

BAJAJ

BRAHMKHATRI

BHAHARNANI

BHAHERWANI

BALANI

FROM HISTORY

BHATIA

The ‘Brahmkhatri’ and ‘Bhatia’ surname has a very interesting origin.

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AILSINGHANI: – Ail Singh.

Nukh: During the Arab invasion (711 AD) most of the inhabitants fled to Punjab to escape their onslaught and later when an earthquake rocked Alor, the remaining people left.

The Ailsinghani are Sikhs. During the reign of Maharaja Ranjitsingh in Punjab, there arose a misunderstanding between Ailsinghani’s forefather Lachman Singh and the Akali Sikhs.

Lachman Singh left Punjab and came to Sind and settled at village Naichan, a few miles away from Larkana. He had four sons. M/s. Ail Singh, Gurbux Singh, Hari Singh and Gurdino Singh.

The Ailsinghani, named after Mr. Ail Singh, prospered and grew into a large community of 100 homes. Some of them moved to Larkana and other places in search of work.

In 1946, around 40 Ailsinghani families lived at Naichan and were zamindars. They, being Sikhs, did not shave or cut their hair and sported beard and wore Pagri (turban). 

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UTTAMSINGH: – Diwan Uttamsingh.

Nukh: Ch-chra.

Uttamsinghs are considered cousins of Lalwani Diwans. They are called Lalwani as they lived in Lalwani Ghitti. Even their Nukh is the same as Lalwanis.

It was learnt in the year 1915, that Uttamsingh surname did not figure in the Lalwani Shijro (family tree) and neither their ancestors had any links with the Lalwani ancestors. It is from then on that they adopted their father Diwan Uttamsingh’s name as their surname.

Diwan Uttamsingh had nine sons: Master Idanmal, Diwan Wazirmal Sub. Judge, Master Kishinchand and others.

Similarly, Diwan Rochiram’s descendants called themselves Lalwani. But even in their case they found that they had no links with the forefather of Lalwani, Mr. Lalchand. Hence they call themselves ‘Girdharimalani’.

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AMARNANI: – Seth Amardinomal.

 Nukh: Bodheja.

Amarnanis roots are connected with Parmar Sodha Rajputs. Their Nukh namesake or Nukh cousins lived at Navsheri Firoz. Prominent amongst their Nukh cousins are Phulwanis who lived in village Bheyan District Kotri and in 1947 they were scattered all over Sind.

The Amarnanis are named after Seth Amardinomal Tanumal, who was a Bhagat (pious man). Some of his children were in service with Seth Vishindas (Harchandrai) of Manjho. Some Amarnanis were traders as well.

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ISRANI: – Diwan Issardas.

Nukh: Makhija.  

Isranis are Arorvanshi. (See Arorvanshi).

Israni’s Nukh cousins lived at Laar, Bharya in district Navsheri Firoz, Kherpur (Mirpur Khas) and at Hyderabad.

Isranis are Sikhs. They came to Sind form Punjab during the reign of Aurangzeb.

Five of the Israni brothers were zamindars and had settled near Larkana, on the opposite bank of the river Indus.

At the start of British rule, they felt insecure and moved to the other side of the bank to village Ilyas. Around the year 1847 they again shifted to Larkana and lived in a street called Ilyasi Ghitti.

The two other Israni brothers lived at Gurdaspur (Punjab). They also migrated to Sind and at first stayed at Khudabad and later shifted to Hyderabad and worked for the Mirs. 

In the year 1793, a division amongst the Mirs took place. These two Israni brothers were deputed by the Mirs to move to “Bataee” and “Ajari” in district Navsheri Firoz and given the task to develop the place.

The Murjanis, whose Nukh is also Makhija, also resided at Navsheri Firoz.

Later, one of the Israni brothers and his family along with the Murjanis migrated to Bhargareen, near Kherpur (Mirpur Khas). Both the Isranis and Murjanis served Mir Sahrab Khan.

Around 1847, Isranis again moved and finally settled in Larkana. Their cousins at Navsheri Firoz later followed. 

Diwan Issardas, after whom the Isranis are named, had a son named Diwan Santoksingh. It was Diwan Santoking’s children who had first left Kherpur migrate to Larkana. 

From Diwan Santoksingh’s roost: Diwan Bahadur Issarsingh Tiloksingh and their close cousins Diwan Gobindsingh and Diwan Kundansingh. From the same roots came Diwan Shyamsingh and Diwan Wadhumal.

From Diwan Tirthdas’ (the other son of Diwan Issardas) roots: Diwan Hazarimal Advocate. Diwan Hazarimal’s grandson Diwan Sirumal Vishindas Advocate was member of All India Congress Committee and also member of Sind Legislative Assembly.

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ISRANIS of ILYASI: – 

Diwan Tilokchand Issardas. 

These Isranis who had migrated from village Ilyas, their forefather was Diwan Tilokchand Issardas.

From Diwan Tilokchand Issardas’ roots came: Diwan Gobindbux Janjimal Barrister, his brother Captain Nanikbux Asst. Commander Royal Engineers and his cousin Diwan Kundandas Tilumal Asst. Public Prosecutor and others. They are all called ‘Ilyasi’.  

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BATHIJA: –

Nukh: Bathija.

Bathija are Nukh cousins of Shahani. (Please read Chapter 5 where the roots of the Shahanis appear)

Bathijas lived at Shikarpur and Larkana. Shikarpur Bathija’s forefather hailed from Kandhar. 

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BAJAJ: –

Nukh: Bajaj.

Bajaj hail from Shikarpur and are Arorvanshi.

Alor (Aror), situated two and a half miles from Rohiri, was in 1947 a small village. During the Arab invasion (711 AD) Bajaj’s forefathers had fled to Punjab to escape the Arab onslaught. Later, under the Kalhora and Mir reign some of them returned to Sind. Bajajs are also found living in Punjab, and at Marwar Rajistan, viz. Seth Jamnalal Bajaj of ‘The Bajaj Fame’.

In Sind, Bajaj Nukh namesakes were Pamnani of Rohiri and Bharvanis of Manjho District Kotri.

Bajaj, who are self-made, had around 150 homes in Shikarpur (1947) and were engaged in Shroff (Bankers) profession.

One instance is that of Seth Jeetmalani. Jeetumal, the forefather of Bajaj, came to Sind during the Mirs reign and took employment with them as their Modi (in-Charge of grain warehouse). His children were Shroffs (Bankers). 

The Mirs collected their taxes in kind and not is cash. The Revenue/Tax officers collected Mir’s share of the harvest and sold it in the market. They then remitted the proceeds to the Mirs through the Shroffs. The Shroffs charged commission as their handling fee.

M/s. Seth Manghomal Lonidasingh & Sons, belonging to Jeetmalani Bajaj, was the most prominent firm of those days. They contributed their share to charity as well. Seth Lonidasingh built a Narishala (ladies home) and a Musafirkhano (traveler’s rest house) at Shikarpur named after Seth Satramsingh Manghomal.

Seth Satramsingh had four sons: M/s. Lonidasingh, Jesasingh, Narainsingh and Chellasingh.

In Quetta a dharamshala in Seth Jesasingh’s name was built by them.

Seth Lonidasingh and his brother Mr. Narainsingh had contributed one-lac rupees each to a Relief Fund for the benefit of the needy Hindu families and gave scholarships to the deserving students.  Seth Chellasingh’s family donated one lac rupees to Shikarpur College. Another Shikarpuri, Seth Sitaldas, also donated one lac rupees to the same College. The College bore their names.        

 

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BRAHM KHATRI (KSHATARIYAS): –

Creation of Brahm Khatris is mentioned in the Hindu Puranas. A Brahmin by the name of Ram, son of Jamdgani, hailing from the family of Bhargo Rishi, always carried a hatchet (Parsho). He was commonly called Parshram (Parsho-ram) and was considered sixth reincarnation of Lord Vishnu.

The Hindu Puranas state that Jamdgani, father of Parshram, had a cow that had Kamdeen powers. Kamdeen meaning Kaam – Desire. Deen, meaning Giver. Desire Giver.  The cow had the powers to fulfill desires of those who asked.   

The King, on one of his rounds, had witnessed the cow performing the miracle and desired to have the cow for himself. The King then asked Jamdgani to hand over the cow but he refused. Just the same, the King seized the cow and took it away. Parshram was not at home when this transpired. Jamdgani on learning what had happened lost his temper and confronted the King. In the melee the King was killed. Parshram then took the cow back to his home and returned it to his father.

Raja’s sons seeking revenge raided Jamdgani’s Ashram and not finding Parshram, killed Jamdgani. Parshram, on his return to Ashram found his father dead. He took a vow and swore vengeance that he would not rest till he not only killed all the sons of Raja but all the Khatris as well. The Hindu Puranas state that Parshram killed all the Khatri members of 21 households.

Cow in Sindhi means ‘Gau’ or ‘Gaaehn’. But in Sanskrit it has many meanings. Gau also means Planet Earth or the Globe and Land. European experts of Sanskrit have also opined that the word ‘Gau’ here means Land.

They, the European experts further opined that Parshram’s father Jamdgani owned large parcel of land or estate that the King wanted to grab but Jamdgani would not submit. The King then forcefully took possession of the estate that led to the episode of killing of King, his sons and 21 Khatri households. (Ref. History of Rajastan by Mr. Todd)

It is said that the “Hindu Puranas” mention that Parshram in the spree came to Sind where during his stay of five days he killed many Khatris.

Sind was then ruled by a Surayavanshi Khatri Raja Rattansen. As soon as he learnt of Parshram’s arrival, Raja packed his bags and along with his 5 Ranis: Chandrasiya, Padmani, Padma, Sokmava and Kishnavati left Sind and escaped under the cover of darkness and sought refuge at Dadchi’s Ashram in the jungle on the banks of river Saraswati.

All the Ranis of Raja Rattansen were pregnant and they delivered sons at the Ashram. Raja Rattansen’s sons (Raj Kumars) were brought up in the Ashram as Brahmins. Though the eldest Raj Kumar’s name was Jaysen, he was called Jayasharma. Sharma, being a title given to Brahmins.

Parshram tracked Raja Rattansen to the Ashram. On approaching the Ashram he saw Raja Rattansen hunting. Not having seen him before, Parshram mistook the Raja for a commoner or an unimportant Khatri and killed him. Parshram then went to the Ashram in search of more Khatris and met Raj Kumar Jayasharma who was dressed in a brahmin’s outfit and mistook him for a Rishi. Jayasharma was well versed in Sanskrit and attracted Parshram’s attention. Parshram made Jayasharma his shish (student- disciple) and treated him like a son.

The Hindu Puranas also states that one-day Parshram and his shish Jayasharma went to the bank of river Saraswati. There was cool breeze in the air. Parshram felt like lying down and taking a nap. He dozed of with his head on Jayasharma’s lap. Being close to the river, the place was infested with mosquitoes. Jayasharma was bit so severely that his skin started to bleed but he dared not to move lest it awaken Parshram.

When Parshram felt the bites himself, he awakened and stood up. Seeing blood on Jayasharma’s body, he realized that only a Khatri, who are supposed to be warm blooded, could bear and tolerate that much pain without moving an inch. The Brahmins are supposed to be cold blooded and have no tolerance power.

Parshram confronted Jayasharma and asked him to speak the truth whether he was Khatri or a Brahmin? Jayasharma confessed and said that he was a Khatri but in the Ashram he had donned the dress of a Brahmin and learnt Vedas.

Parshram did not desire to kill a Brahmin and neither wanted to let go a Khatri. But to kill a man who was so well versed in Vedas would also be a Paap (sin). He had accepted Jayasharma as his student (shish) and he had served him well. Parshram pardoned Jayasharma and announced that thereafter Jayasharma would be known as ‘Brahm Khatri’.

Mr. Anthovan in his book titled ‘Races and Castes of Bombay Presidency’ has written that Parshram, on his hunt for the blood of Khatris permitted some pregnant Khatri women and widows to take refuge with the Brahmins. Children born to those ladies, under the protection of Brahmins, bore the name ‘Brahm Khatris’.

Mr. Anthovan has further stated that around five hundred years ago, some Brahm Khatris left Punjab and migrated to Champaner near Panch Mahal (Now in Gujarat). In 1484, Muslims invaded the area that forced Brahm Khatris to move again to Gujarat.

The author, Diwan Bherumal Advani in the course of his research learnt that the ancestors of Brahm Khatris had again moved from Gujarat to Kutch, and thereafter from Kutch they went on to Nagar Thhata and onward to Karachi, Hyderabad and Shikarpur.

Brahm Khatris are Devi worshippers. The Chorigars of Hyderabad are Brahm Khatris.

The Brahm Khatris do not have a common Nukh. In Sind they had many Nukhs viz. Arora, Asra, Bachhra, Tandon, Jaggar, Chhatpar, Dar-ri, Dodya, Dhandha, Sanchar, Sodha, Sonpar, Sonji, Kathbali, Kako, Karkal, Gana, Mamtora, Madhu, Machhar and Ningo etc.

The Brahm Khatris do not marry within the same Nukh and were scattered all over Sind, Kutch, Kathiawar, Gujarat and Bombay.   

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BHAHARNANI: – 

MUKHI BAHARDINMAL. 

Nukh: Somaiya.

Lohanas have the same Nukh.

Baharnani hail from Nasserpur and are named after their forefather Mukhi Bahardinmal who was son of Mukhi Roopchand.

Mukhi Bahardinmal was born during the British reign. It was during the lifetime of Mukhi Roopchand that British conquered Sind. Baharnani’s ancestors, even before Mukhi Roopchand, were Mukhis of Nasserpur.

During the reign of Mir Alhyar Khan, after whom ‘Tando Alhyar’ is named, grandfather of Mukhi Bahardinmal, Seth Devrajmal was Mukhi of Nasserpur and Anbardar (granary keeper) of the Mirs.

It was during the Mirs reign that some cousins of Mukhi Devrajmal went to Karachi in search of better prospects.

 

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BHAHERWANI: – 

SETH BHAHROMAL /BHAHERDINOMAL.

Nukh: Dar-ri.

Balwani, Ramrakhani, Ramchandani, Malkani and Hingoranis share the same Nukh. They all had migrated from Jaisalmer.

The forefathers of Bhaherwanis came to Sind from Khanpur in Punjab. They are named after their elder Seth Bhahromal son of Bhai Tharumal Ailram.

Seth Bhahromal had accompanied Mir Yaam from Khanpur to Sind.  Mir Yaam, along with his cortege and Seth Bhahromal set camp near Hyderabad and built his own village called ‘Tando Yaam’. As these Mirs had come from Khanpur, they were called ‘Khanani Mirs’. Seth Bhahromal received as a gift a parcel of land from Mir Yaam that he cultivated with vigor.

Seth Bhahromal had four sons: M/s. Rochiram, Kewalram, Tirthdas and Gopaldas.

Seth Tirthdas and Seth Gopaldas were financially more sound compared to his other two brothers.

From Seth Tirthdas’ roots: Rai Sahib Rupchand Seomal, who in 1947 was a zamindar having large holdings. He also had a Cotton Ginning Mill.

From Seth Gopaldas’ roots: Seth Tahilram Teckchand. He too, in 1947 was a zamindar with large holdings, and member of Sind Assembly (Congers party).

Amongst the Bhaherwanis, many were zamindars and some were traders.  Some Bhaherwanis are related by marriage to Bharvanis.

 

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BALANI: – SETH BALIMAL.

Nukh: Rai Parthor.   

Gotar: Kashap.

Balanis are Chauhan Rajputs. Their forefathers hailed from Delhi. Due to some mis-understanding between Prithviraj Chauhan and Raja Jaichand, both fought battles with each other. Balanis being well wishers of Prithviraj had no other option but to leave Delhi.

It is understood that the word Rai Parthor (Nukh) meant Prithvi or under the protection of Prithvi. Rai, meaning Royal (Under the protection of Raja Prithviraj). Similarly, many Lohanas and Bhatias have the word Rai affixed to their Nukh as they were under the protection of Rai rulers of Kutch.

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This is from History:

Raja Prithviraj Chauhan, ruler of Delhi and Ajmer, and Raja Jaichand Kanoj, were very good and dear friends and had cordial relationship. When Sultan Shahab Aldeen invaded Delhi, Raja Jaichand went to the rescue of Raja Prithviraj and placed his army at his disposal. However, their friendship did not last very long, and became bitter enemies of each other.

In the year 1193, Sultan Shahab Aldeen again invaded Delhi. Raja Jaichand instead of helping Raja Prithviraj sided with the Sultan. Prithviraj lost and died in the battle. There after the Hindus lost their hold and rule over Delhi and Ajmer.

In 1194, Sultan Shahab Aldeen, in an another battle defeated Raja Jaichand Kanoj. Benaras fell into Sultan’s hands. The Muslim rulers then ruled Bengal, Bihar and Audh. The entire Northern India was lost to them.

Balani elders migrated to Sind during the period mentioned above. Sind was then ruled by Somran.

The name Balani was derived from Seth Balimal who lived at Navsheri Firoz.

Seth Balimal had one son: Seth Choithram who sired two sons: M/s. Tejaram and Bejaram. Children of both these brothers were in 1947, living at Navsheri Firoz.

During the Mirs reign, Israni and Murjani were in the employment of the Mirs. The Mirs asked them to shift to Navsheri Firoz to improve the living conditions there. After completing the assignment Israni and Murjani moved to village Bhargareen to live in closer vicinity of the Mirs who were then living at Kherpur.

Along with Israni and Murjanis, Seth Chotirmal Balani and his bradri (family members, cousins’ etc.) also shifted to live at Bhargareen. In 1947, there were around seventeen or eighteen Balani families living there. Some of the Balanis were advocates, doctors, schoolteachers and in govt. service.

In 1947, Navsheri Firoz had around sixty Balani households. These Balanis were advocates, doctors, zamindars and traders.

Paramount amongst the Balanis was Mr. Tolaram. He was a social worker and a novelist. Mr. Tolaram’s articles were published in magazines and in newspapers.

Dr. Lokumal Sirumal was the first amongst the Balanis of Navsheri Firoz to become a Doctor. He was a very friendly and sociable person. He expired during 1946-1947.

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BHATIA: –  BHATI.    

Bhatias are Bhati Rajputs hailing from Jaisalmer. Their roots are linked to Lord Shree Krishna who was a Jadoovaseen from the Chandravanshi sect. Bhatias are also called Chandravanshi, Jadoovaseen and Krishinvanshi. Under what circumstances Bhatias went to Jaisalmer and how they came to Sind is explained on the following pages.

Shree Krishna was born at Mathura and brought up at Gokul. Before the Mahabharata war, he along with his Jadoovanshi sect migrated to Dwarka. Shree Krishna is also called Dwarkanath.

Over five thousand years ago Shree Krishna lived on this Planet Earth for one hundred and twenty years. At that time, the Dawapur era was about to end and Kalyuga was to begin.

After Shree Krishna, the Jadoovaseen fought amongst each other and thousands were killed. This is said to be the first chapter of Kalyuga as brothers killed brothers. End result was that Jadoovanshis lost their control over Dwarka, Indraprastha (towards Delhi) and Paryag, the places that they had earlier ruled over. 

After the battle, the surviving Jadoovaseens mobilized themselves and went on rampage, winning and loosing kingdoms. If they won a kingdom on one front, they lost another on the other front. In the process they built new cities.

 A Jadoovaseen Raja named ‘Gaj’ built a city and named it ‘Gajni’ or ‘Gajnipur’. The Iranians changed the pronunciation to ‘Gazni’. Raja Gaj was thereafter killed by the ruler of Kharasan. The remaining Jadoovaseens left Gazni and migrated to their Punjab strong hold and ruled it in peace for many years.  

Thereafter invaders from Pakhtar/Bakhtar (Bactria) looted Punjab and Sind.  Again the Iranians, Unanis (Greeks), and Saak/ Satheen from Turkey came to loot but instead stayed on. In the process they killed Raja of Jadoovaseen who was the father of King Salewahan.

The Jadoovaseens then moved to Lahore and Multan and ruled over that area.

Sind thereafter was known as Indo Sathya. Later, the Kashans came and overpowered the Saaks.

Raja Kanshak of Kashan family propogated Buddhism. After him, Vasdev I and Vasdev II ruled over Sind.

During Vasdev I’s era (177-158 B.C.), some monuments located at Mohan and Kahans jo Daro were re-constructed.

 Large cities existed in North Sind. Archeological finds of 27 such large and 53 smaller cities were found in Sakhar and Larkana district. {Dr. Sunitikumar Chatterji: Modern Review for December 1924 p. 671}.

The Saak/ Satheens did not leave Jadoovaseens in peace. They fought a battle some 50 miles away from Multan near ‘Kahror’. Raja Salewahan of Jadoovaseens defeated the Saaks/Satheens and was called ‘Sakari’ Raja Salewahan. Sak meaning Saak, and Ari meaning Foe. Foe of the Saaks.

Tables turned for the Jadoovanshis. To celebrate their victory, they formulated a new calendar called ‘Saak Sambat’ that carries on even now.

Again the Saaks went after Jadoonaseens. But Raja Rasal, son of Raja Salewahan, defeated them. City of Sialkot was built by Raja Rasal. His descendants were called Saak Rajkumars. Who so ever amongst them was installed as the King was considered representative of Raja Salewahan, and reincarnation of Lord Vishnu.

Raja Salewahan’s grandson was ‘Bhati’. Bhati Rajputs are named after him. The word Bhatia originated from Bhati, son of Raja Rasal. Bhatia meaning children of Bhati.

There are Bhati Rajputs in Jaisalmer, but they went there much later. For centuries Bhati Rajputs ruled over Punjab. Thereafter they had to retreat and relocate themselves near the bank of river Sutlaj but their domain over Punjab continued. However, many of Bhati Rajputs left Punjab and traveled south and made ‘Tanot’ and later ‘Bhawalpur’ as their capital.

Then came Raja Devraj, a Bhati (Bhatia) Rajput who was called ‘Raval’. After him all the rulers of Jaisalmer were called ‘Raval’. Raja Devraj constructed a Fort at Bhawalpur that was named after him ‘Devgrah’. Today it is called Dherawar or Devrawar.

It is believed that during the raids of Mohd. Gazni, many Bhati Rajputs left Bhawalpur and moved to a city called ‘Ladhrov or Ladhano’ located around 10 miles away from the present Jaisalmer.

Some time later, around the year 1156, a Bhati Rajput by the name of ‘Jesal’ built a new city and named it Jaisalmer. Within the city he constructed a Fort that was destroyed by Allahvaldeen Badshah and city set to fire.

The ruins of this old city still stand in the present Jaisalmer. For five centuries Jaisalmer remained in ruins, forcing the Bhati Rajputs to dwell elsewhere.

In the year 1651, Sabal Singh, a Bhati Rajput, reconstructed the ruined city and christened it ‘Jaisalmer’ in memory of his ancestors.

Sind was ruled by Somrans when Sultan Allahvaldeen burnt and destroyed Jaisalmer. Somas were living in Sind as well.

Prior to Arab invasion, Hindu Kings ruled over parts of Kutch, Gujarat, Bilk Las Belo (Aram Belo), and the sea front of Makran. Sind was still ruled by Somras. The Samans first conquered Kutch, Kathiawar, and later took over Las and Sind.   

According to History of Kutch, King Rai hailed from Jharayjan family. His forefather was Jharo Valad (valad means son of) Lakhoo, a Samo Rajput hailing from Nagar Thhata. 

Tales of Rai Dhiyach (Rai Diyas) and Surath are well known in Sind.

Rai Dhiyach, ruler of Jhunagrah was a Chora Samo Rajputs of Sind. He had three great distinctions to his credit. Fulfillment of Commitment (Sukha = Promise), Bravery (Veerta) & Living by his word (Vachan Ji Palna = Honour).

It is said that in the year 1010 A.D., a song sung by Bijal, a peasant female folk singer, enchanted King Rai Dhiyach. He asked Bijal, “Ask what you desire from me?” Bijal replied, “Your (King’s) head”! King Rai, true to his word, cut his head. 

All elder Kathiawaris and Sindhis remember this tale till date. Even Shah Abdul Latif, Sind’s noted poet and writer, had written a poem in his praise, saying “Pasi Pat Par Thio, Sindu Jadam Jodh”. Shah Sahib has called Rai Dhiyach, Jadam. Jadam means Jadhoo (Yadhoo). Yadhoo, meaning Yadhoovanshi, descendent of Raja Yaddhoo. Shah Sahib thus acknowledges that Sama Rajputs were from Yadhoovanshi family. Shri Krishna was born in this family.

The Somas lived at Thhata and toward Samoee.

Samorans ruled from their capital city Wagh Kot and later from a city called Tor. During the tussle amongst Dodi and Chanesar, not only was their capital city destroyed but they lost their reign as well.

Samans gained power and ruled. Samoee, a city on the bank of Indus, became their Capital, which today is a small village located three miles away from Nagar Thhata, north of Makli Takri.

Mamoee (Mahmaee) Faqir, famous for predicting the future was from Samoee. He was also called Samoee Faqir. He had two sisters. One named Mai Makli after whom “Makli Takri” (Takri = Hill) is named. She is buried on the Takri.

The other sister was Mai Bilri. “Balri Sharif”, a village in the district Goni is named after her. It is here that Shah Abdul Latif’s Great Grand Father Shah Karim’s Dargah is located.

All this transpired during the reign of Hakam (ruler) Yaam Tamachi, who married Noori, a fisher-woman. Both Yaam Tamachi and Noori are buried at Samoee.

The Sindhu River after changing course flowed via Kalan Kot. Kalan Kot was once a capital city called Taglaqabad.

Kalan or Kalyan means salvation. Kot means Fort. Salvation Fort, a place where one attains salvation. From the name it is apparent that it was constructed by a Hindu, and later during the Muslim rule it was converted into a Mosque. There is Kalan Kot at Karachi housing Devi Mata’s (Durga Mata) Temple.

After Somran, Samans (Jadoovaseens) who were already ruling Kutch and Kathiawar took over as Rulers of Sind. King ‘Rai’ of Kutch was from Jharayjan family. Jharo, son of Lakho was inhabitant of Nagar Thhata. Jharo’s (Jharayjan) descendants call themselves Jhareja, meaning children of Jharo. The name Jhareja, in Gujarati came to be pronounced as Jadeja.

Ruler of Girnar Kot, Rai Dhiyach (Rai Diyas) was from Chora Sama Rajput (Jadoovaseen) family. He was installed as king in the year 1003, and in 1010, he gave up his life by slitting his head off, for a woman who had brought him enchantment through her songs.

The author, Diwan Bherumal M. Advani, in his volume writes that it is understood that after the forces of Sultan Allahvaldeen destroyed Jaisalmer, the Bhati Rajputs (Bhatias) relying on the Saman’s (Jadoovanseen’s) hospitality went to Thhata via Rohiri. Some of them, from Thhata went to Kathiawar.

There is a large community of Bhatias in Gujarat. The Gujarati Bhatias add a suffix ‘Ji’ or ‘Si’ to their name viz. Premji, Kanji, Nansi, Khetsi and so on. In Sanskrit ‘Si” means ‘Lion’.

Bhatias are found not only in India but all over the world, viz. in 1947 they were in Kabul, Kandhar, Nairobi and Zanzibar. Most of them are worshippers of Shri Nathji.

In Sind, most Bhatias lived at Rohiri and intermarried within the community only.

Amongst the Sindhi Bhatias are the Lalas. In 1946 they lived at Rohiri. They are originally from Jaisalmer and migrated first to Delhi. With their Rajput background they advanced and during the Mogul Empire they held high posts and were bestowed with the title of ‘Lala’. 

Lala Parmanand came to Sind as Nawab of Bakhar and soon other Lalas followed. It is said that a famine gripped Bakhar. Lala Parmanand ordered free distribution of Government’s stock of grain. Some envious persons complained to the Mirs, who had him killed. His mutilated body was packed in to a Gunny bag and dumped into the river.

The bag, landed at Rohiri’s ‘Sati Astan’. Sati Astan = a spot for self-immolation by a woman after the death of her husband. The bag burst opened and out came Lala Parmanand, alive, hail and hearty.

It is said that Lala Parmanand stood at this Astan and proclaimed that thereinafter all his descendents shall perform their Munan (Tonsure – Shaving the hair a child is born with) at that spot. After saying this, Lala Parmanand jumped back into the river and disappeared forever. Thereafter, all Lala children preformed their Munan at that spot. As a remembrance to him, the Lalas sacrificed a lamb at that place and packed the remains into a gunny bag and offered it to the river. However, as time passed, sweetmeat and edibles replaced the lamb. (See Lala)

Generally all Bhatias are vegetarian but some some of them in Punjab and Sind are non-vegetarian

Prior to the partition of India, Bhatias held an All India Bhatia Conference every year. The first Bhatia conference was held at Karachi in the year 1913 with Chief Judge of Jodhpur as its Patron. The second conference was held at Bombay in 1915, with Rai Sahib Dr. Hiralal of Lahore as its Patron. The third conference was held at Lahore in 1916, with Rai Sahib Asardas Motaram of Shikarpur as its Patron. The Forth conference was held in 1917 at Calcutta with Rai Sahib Kalyanji Morarji Barrister as its Patron. The Sindhi Bhatias held their own Provincial Conference at Rohiri. This only establishes that the Bhatias are a closely-knit community.  

There were in 1947 eighty-four Nukhs amongst the Bhatias. Gajaria, Kajria, Udaysi, Babla, Jela, Parmal, Java (Jaba), Chachea, Soni, Ghaga, Gandhi, Gokul Gandhi, Wando and so on. In some Nukhs the word Rai is prefixed, viz. Rai Samet, Rai Punchlotia (Lodhia), Rai Ramia, Rai Padamsi, Rai Panchal and so on.

The Bhatias in Sind held high and important Govt. posts. There were doctors, advocates, professors, teachers, merchants and traders amongst them. Amongst the elderly pensioners in Sind was Mr. Valhabdas Gajaria, retired Deputy Collector. 

In Hyderabad the famous bookseller and stamp vender Mr. Ramchand Murjmal was a Bhatia and an Arya Samaji. There were also jewelers amongst them and they were called ‘Jawahari Bhatias’.

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BHATIA JAWAHARI: –

 Nukh: – Naeen Gandhi.

The Jawahari Bhatias first came to Rohiri from Jaisalmer and Bhawalpur. Later, during the reign of Mir Fatehali Khan Talpar they moved on to Hyderabad. Jawahari Bhatias are not connected with the Gandhis of Rohiri and Shikarpur.

Jawahari Bhatias were jewelers dealing in pearls, jewelry and other related items and had their shops, Gadhies (kothi-offices) and their houses in ‘Loung Bhagat Ghitti’ at Hyderabad. The street was also called ‘Jawahari Ghitti’. They were called Jawahari Bhatias due to their vocation. 

Jawahari Bhatias catered to the Mirs and Nawabs, selling them pearls, and jewelry. Even the Amils and the Bhaibunds were their clients. But as time went by the fashion changed. Pearls were no longer in vogue.

Jawahari Bhatias sent their children to English Schools. The younger generation had other ideas. They opted for Govt. jobs and employment. Some became Advocates.

Amongst the first Jawahari Bhatias to migrate from Rohiri to Hyderabad was Seth Gobindram who sired Seth Dokiram.

Seth Chandumal, son of Seth Dokiram Gobindram, was an exclusive Jeweler to the Mirs. Seth Dokiram’s other son Seth Vishindas was a cotton merchant. His son Mr. Rochiram was an engineer working with Hyderabad’s Municipal Water Works.

On April 15th 1906, a bomb exploded in the Fort at Hyderabad. Thereafter, Hyderabad’s Treasury office and the Court caught fire followed by another fire at

Thhata. Mr. Rochiram was responsible for extinguishing all the three fires. For extinguishing Thhata fire, he received an award of Rupees one thousand.

Brother of Mr. Rochiram Vishindas was Mr. Motiram Advocate. His son Seth Bhagchand Motiram worked with Karachi Fire Brigade. He was also responsible for extinguishing many major fires.

Seth Dokiram’s other son was Seth Ramchand. His son Mr. Mathuradas Ramchand was one of the first graduates in Sind. He graduated from ‘Elphinstone College’ Bombay in 1886. After doing Law, he joined Diwan Bahadur Hiranand Khemsingh Advani, Advocate.

One more popular amongst the Jawahari Bhatias was Seth Mulchand Nandiram son of Seth Gobindram Udanmal, son of Seth Jagumal Kashiram.

Seth Mulchand had three sons: M/s. Khatanmal, Sobhraj and Udanmal. Seth Khatanmal had four sons: M/s. Jethanand, Hassomal, Shamdas and Lilaram.

Seth Hassomal Khatanmal was born at Hyderabad in the year 1847. Like his father he was also a jeweler. Both the father and son brought diamonds, pearls and jewelry from Bombay and Jaipur for sale at Hyderabad. They lived in Loung Bhagat Ghitti. Seth Hassomal expired during January 1931.

The Amil ladies and thereafter Bhaibund ladies had stopped buying and wearing pearls much prior to the death of Seth Hassomal. Lack of business led to Seth Hassomal’s sons going for higher studies.

Seth Hassomal’s one son Mr. Pritamdas worked with The Imperial Bank. The other son Mr. Ghanshamdas was an Advocate. Seth Hassomal’s third son Master Mohanlal, was Head Master of Navalrai Hiranand Academy’s Qilo (Fort) English Medium branch. The fourth son Mr. Purshotamdas was a merchant.

Mr. Ghanshamdas Hassomal was born on August 10th 1891 at Hyderabad. Right from young age, he studied in English Medium School. Mr. Ghanshamdas learnt Sanskrit at Gidumal Sanskrit Pathshala and in 1906 opted for Sanskrit as second language in the Matric examination.

Between 1906 and 1915, Mr. Ghanshamdas taught at Nav Kaniya Vidyalaya and worked as clerk at The Imperial Bank that was then known as the Bombay Bank. In 1915, he passed Sind Pleaders Examination at Karachi and in 1916 he left the Bank to practice law.

Mr. Ghanshamdas had two sons: Mr. Gangaram had passed B. E. and was Sub. Division Officer. His other son: Mr. Ramchand, in the year 1947, was in College. They all called themselves ‘Jawahari Bhatias’.

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‘The Source of Sindhi Surnames’ is a translation into English, by Mr. Narain Sobhraj Kimatrai from the original in Sindhi by Mr. Diwan Bherumal Mahirchand Advani