Nukh: – Lulla
Lullas are Arorvanshi and hail from Alor (Rohiri). They migrated to Larkana and Shikarpur.
Families bearing this Lulla nukh were found at Shikarpur, Larkana, Sakhar, Rohiri, Kadyari, Hallani, Bhelani, Jalbani, Khanwahan, Ghambhat, Tando Mir Ali, and Theba Pot Rayasat Kherpur.
Lullas of Larkana are Bhaibunds and had lived there for over seven generations. They were engaged in zamindari and trade. Some were Thhekedars (contractors). Mukhi Motumal Lulla, his son Mukhi Verhomal and his son Mukhi Thaunmal had been Mukhis for generations. In 1946, Mukhi Thaunmal’s son Seth Chhataram was Mukhi. All disputes were referred to him, even after Larkana got its Civil Court. People avoided going to the Court.
Prior to the British take over, all the districts of Larkana were part and parcel of Shikarpur. The British Collectors were trying to develop Larkana and offered land free of cost to the public. All they were required to do was to make their claim to the land by burning an oil lamp on it. Larkana honoured their Collectors by naming the streets and bazaars after them.
Mukhi Verhomal’s son Mukhi Naraindas was Municipal Councilor of Larkana. He settled disputes without charging any fee. Mukhi Naraindas was connected with religious institutions and helped them financially as well. He anonymously gave dole to the needy widows. Mukhi Naraindas expired in the year 1928 at the age of 65.
Mukhi Mahirchand, son of Mukhi Naraindas, was an important person in Larkana. He was the President of ‘Ram Mandali’, and Municipal Councilor for a while. He was also Chairman of Urban Co-operative Bank.
Mukhi Naraindas’ sons: Mukhi Mulchand, Mukhi Puransingh and Mukhi Teckchand. Mukhi Mulchand had expired prior to 1946.
Mukhi Teckchand, a zamindar, aged 32 in 1946, was a good natured and pleasant man. Like his father, he helped the needy.
Nukh: – Lund.
Lunds lived at Sakhar, Shikarpur and Larkana.
Bhai Chanrai Bachumal Shikarpuri, having the same Nukh, had composed “Sami Ja Saloks”. Mr. Verhomal Khatanmal Navani, prominent bookseller of Larkana and others had the same Nukh.
Lodha’s ancestors lived at Ludhiana, and thereafter they moved to Bandal Khund. During Mugul regime they again shifted to Gujarat and Kathiawar and thereafter to Sind.
Nukh: – Asarpota, Panditpota, Jobanota, Popat, Chhug, Thakral, Chhabria, Sejpal, Somaiya, Karya, Katar (Khatar), Mamotia, and Dhodheja etc.
A European by name of ‘Anthovan’ had written a book on the ‘Races and Casts of Bombay Presidency’. In the third chapter, page 371 of the book, he has stated that Lohana’s are descendants of Shree Ramachandra’s son Lava.
From Ramayana, it is learnt that after Raja Dashratha, Shree Ramachandra inherited Ayodhiya. It is stated in Raghu Vansh (15, 87) that Bharat, Shree Ramachandra’s brother, inherited the Province of Sind. (Sind Desh).
Shree Ramachandra had two sons. Kush and Luva. They were twins but Kush was considered eldest. After Shree Ramachandra, Kush inherited Ayodhiya. His descendants were called Vanhans. His brother Luva, inherited the northern part of Koshal, and his descendants were called Lohana.
Mr. Anthovan states that according to the folklore, Lohana are Rathod Rajputs (Khatri). Raja Jaichand of Kanoj (Kanya Kabaj) tormented them and they could do nothing. They prayed to their Deity who told them that the following morning they should walk a mile or two in a certain direction till they reached an Iron Fort.
The Deity instructed the Rathods to take refuge in the Fort for sixteen days and leave thereafter. The Rathods would then be able to defeat their enemy. The Iron Fort would vanish on the twenty-first day and they were told to then construct a new Fort at that site. Having taken refuge in the Iron Fort, the Rathods changed their name to Lohana (Loha = Iron and Na = Of) and named all their Forts starting with Lo or La viz. Loh Gadah and Lahore. The Lohanas thereafter migrated to Multan and Sind. In the 13th century, some of them went to Kutch.
Those Lohanas who lived in Sind, according to Mr. Anthovan, have many Nukhs viz. Asarpota, Panditpota, Jobanota, Popat, Chhug, Thakral, Chhabria, Sejpal, Somaiya, Karya, Katar (Khatar) and Mamotia etc. According to the History of Arorvanshi, persons belonging to above-mentioned Nukhs lived in Punjab as well.
Prior to the Arab invasion, the Lohanas lived in Sind and were wealthy. But as a result of Arab invasion, many Rulers & Kings along with some of their subjects fled Sind and took refuge in Kutch and Punjab. They are identified in Punjab as ‘Arorvanshi’. Aror derived from Alwar, and Vanshi meaning hailing from, or resident of.
Those Hindus who stayed behind were asked by the Arabs to convert to Islam. Many Sindhi Muslims are descendants of these converts.
In the year 1194, Mohd. Ghori invaded and defeated Kanoj’s Raja Jaichand and murdered thousands of Hindus. The Lohanas and other Hindus out of fright and fear started serving the Muslim Masters. The author, Diwan Bherumal M. Advani, in his volume has opined that this was the start of Muslim domination in Sind.
The Lohana, though Khatri (warriors), thus transformed to Vaishas (traders).
Lohana – Conversion to Memons: –
Mr. Anthovan writes in his volume that ‘Pran Peer Dastgeer’, Peer of Iran, expired at Baghdad in the year 1165. Pran Peer Dastgeer’s last words to his son Syed Taj Alluadeen were that he should go and stay in Hindustan and propagate Islam to its people. It is assumed that some Somras and Samans converted to Islam then.
Five generations after Syed Taj Alluadeen’s demise, Syed Yusaf Alluadeen Qadri was born. In the year 1421 he dreamt that he should also go to Hindustan and enlighten its people by converting them to Islam.
Murkab Khan, a Saman, ruled Sind with Thhato as its capital. According to Mr. Anthovan, the Samans ruled Sind from 1351 to 1521. It is assumed that Murbak Khan was infact Yaam Raidan (1454) who received and welcomed Syed Yusaf Alluadeen Qadri as his guest and became his follower.
Seth Maneckji, Mukhi of eighty-four lacs Lohanas, was a trusted friend of Yaam Raidan or Murkab Khan the ruler. Seeing Yaam Raidan convert to Islam, Seth Maneckji, with two of his three sons and 700 Lohanas became followers of Syed Yusaf Alluadeen Qadri and converted to Islam.
Seth Maneckji’s son Raoji’s name was changed to Ahmed. Raoji’s two sons, Sunderji and Hansraj, were named Adam and Taj Mohammed.
Sindhi Hindus earlier had Kutchi names. It is during Miya Noor Mohd.’s reign that the present form of Hindu names came into being.
Some Lohanas were called Mota. After conversion to Islam, they, along with other Lohanas were called Memon. Memon meaning Moman. Moman, meaning Preacher of Iman, Truth.
Those Lohanas, who choose not to convert, prayed to God Dariya Shah. (God of the Water. River/Sea).
Earlier, Murkh Shah of Thhato had tried to convert Hindus forcefully when Shree Amar Uderolal Sahib appeared in person and stopped the conversion. This time too Varan Devtha (Varan = Vayu = Wind) came to their rescue.
According to Mr. Anthovan, Those Lohanas of Thhato, who had converted to Islam too and become Memons were invited by Jarejho Roa Khanghar, ruler of Bhuj (1548-1584) to settle in Bhuj. It is from there that Katchi Memons migrated to Kathiawar and Gujarat. Surat in Gujarat was an important trading center during 1580 to 1680 and Memons made their bounty there. Later, the Memons reached Bombay.
Diwan Bherumal M. Advani writes that all the Memons of Bombay, Gujarat and Kutch are Lohanas from Sind. (A volume written by Mr. Anthovan, part 2, pages 52 and 53.)
Nukh: – Makhija.
Makhijas are Arorvanshi. Having left Sind they returned from Multan at different times and settled in Sind at Laar, Navsheri Firoz and other towns.
Isranis from Larkana, Murjanis from Kherpur State, Mirchandanis of Hyderabad, all have the same Nukh.
Some Bhaibunds in Hyderabad also had Makhija as their Nukh viz. Mr. Bhagwandas Lalchand, the Bookseller.
There are some Makhijas who wrongly call themselves Makhijani. This, Diwan Bherumal M. Advani writes is wrong. Ani and Ja, both words have the same meaning. Therefore Ani is a repetition.
There are two Malkani surnames originating from Hyderabad.
MALKANI: – Mr. Raichand Malkani.
Nukh: – Rora.
Descendant of Mr. Raichand Malkani: Mr. Jashanmal Mulchand Mukhtiarkar and Mr. Kundanmal Post Master.
Mr. Kundanmal Post Master’s sons: M/s. Jhamatmal, Pahlajrai, Hashmatrai and Mulchand.
Mr. Shamdas Atarsingh and others.
The author, Diwan Bherumal M. Advani was unable to obtain more information on the above mentioned Malkanis.
MALKANI: – Diwan Malkmal.
Nukh: – Dar – ri.
Ramchandanis of Hyderabad, Sahiti’s Hingorani, Takhtani, Kirtani, Ramrakhani, and Balwani have the same Nukh.
The above mentioned Malkanis migrated from Jaisalmer and settled in Sahiti district. Later some Ramchandani and Malkanis moved to Hyderabad and stayed in the same street that was later called Malkani Ghitti. It is assumed that the Chandiramanis and Jhangianis also came to Hyderabad around the same time, as they stayed near Malkani Ghitti i.e. Chandiramani Ghitti.
The Ancestor of ‘Dar – ri’ nukh was Diwan Malkmal. Diwan Malkmal’s son Diwan Adomal had four sons: M/s. Gopaldas, Gidumal, Sabhachand and Seomal.
According to their Shijro (family tree), Diwan Gopaldas had two sons: Diwan Mohandas and Diwan Mulchand. Diwan Mohandas had one son: Diwan Sahibrai, who was an adopted son.
Diwan Sahibrai was actually son of Diwan Nansingh Ramchand, forefather of the Ramchandanis.
Diwan Nansingh’s wife was a Malkani and Diwan Sahibrai was adopted by his Nano (maternal grandfather) Diwan Mohandas. Hence Diwan Sahibrai’s children are known as Malkanis.
Diwan Sahibrai knew Persian (Farsi) and was a renowned poet. At all the functions held by the Mirs, he phrased and recited an appropriate poem and won their hearts. Mirs rewarded him with gifts and awards.
Diwan Sahibrai’s son Munshi Awatrai Malkani was Mir Subedar Khan’s Revenue Minster. His portfolio was equivalent to that of an exchequer.
The wealth of the Mirs was stored in the Treasury (strong room) that was located inside Hyderabad’s Fort.
In the year 1843, when Sir Charles Nepier conquered Sind, he wanted to take possession of and confiscate Mir’s wealth. The keys of the Treasury’s strong room were with Munshi Awatrai Malkani.
Sir Charles went to Malkani Ghitti and demanded the keys from Munshi Awatrai. Munshi Awatrai refused to part with the keys until and unless he received a directive from Mir Subedar Khan in person.
Munshi Awatrai Malkani was an honest and God fearing man. The Mir trusted him to the extent that he was permitted to enter Mir’s private chambers unannounced. Sir Charles was aware of this.
The British arrested the Mirs and put them under detention in a Bungalow at Gidu Bunder. Their families were confined to the four walls of the private chamber in the Fort. The assignment of transporting Mir’s family, first to Gidu Bunder Bungalow and later to Calcutta was entrusted to Munshi Awatrai Malkani.
Loyal as he was, Munshi Awatrai managed to smuggle out jewels and valuables in sixteen palanquins that carried Mir’s Begums and courtesan from the Fort to Gidu Bunder Bungalow. All the palanquins reached their destination (Gidu Bunder Bungalow) safely.
The seventeenth palanquin contained only the jewels and valuables. Unfortunately for the Mir, a gust of strong wind blew the cloth cover off the palanquin and displayed the wealth. Sir Charles confiscated the palanquin. A British lady was then sent in to the private chambers of the Fort to escort the remaining ladies out and transferred them to the Gidu Bunder Bungalow.
Sir Charles Nepier, angered by Munshi Awatrai’s act, arrested him and threatened to shoot him lest the Munshi serve under him for a year to brief the British of the local affairs. Sir Nepier offered him a pension of rupees eight hundred a month, but Munshi Awatrai rejected it saying it was not possible for him to serve two masters at the same time. Later, at the recommendation of the Mir, he was granted Political Pension.
During the battle that took place between the Mirs and British, some residents fled from Hyderabad as they apprehended that with the arrest of Mirs, the city might be looted.
When Sir Charles entered Malkani Ghitti to collect the keys of Treasury from Munshi Awatrai, many residents of Malkani and Ramchandani Ghitti feared that British soldiers might force their entry into their houses and seduce their ladies. Munshi Awatrai ordered all the females to be locked in the rooms and men to stand guard armed with swords. The men where instructed that in the remote eventuality, all the females were to be killed by their own men rather then succumb to the British forces. Seeing the tense situation, Sir Charles ordered his soldiers not to enter the street. All ended well.
Munshi Awatrai Malkani and Diwan Shokiram Nandiram Advani were Mukhis of Hyderabad for quite some time.
Munshi Awatrai had two sons: Diwan Chetanram and Diwan Gobindbux.
Both Diwan Chetanram and his son Diwan Naraindas were Advocates.
Diwan Gobindbux was born in the year 1850. The standard of education in those days was very high. Not every one could appear for Matric (O level) exam in those days, but despite the difficulties Diwan Gobindbux passed his Matric (O level). A graduate of 1946 was no match to those who had passed their Matric (O level).
Diwan Gobindbux was fluent in English, Sindhi, Urdu, Persian and Pishtu. After passing Matric (O level) he was Head Master of Anglo Vernacular School at Kotri.
A leading and prominent Advocate Khan Bahadur Miya Hussein Ali took lessons in English from Diwan Gobindbux.
Seeing no prospects in teaching profession, Diwan Gobindbux did his LL.B. (law) and practiced at Sakhar.
Diwan Gobindbux was a successful Advocate. Ten to twelve years of practice earned him five lacs of rupees. Hailing from a well to do family Diwan Gobindbux maintained his standard of living.
Diwan Gobindbux’s father Munshi Awatrai was a kindhearted man. Towards the later part of his life he became vegetarian. Many saints called on him. The poor and the needy were never turned away.
Munshi Awatrai wrote letters to his son instructing him to pay a certain sum to holder of the note towards charity and also wrote Hundis (promissory notes) to be honoured by his son. These letters and Hundis amounted to over Rupees One thousand a month. Diwan Gobindbux happily honored the notes and the Hundis with out blinking an eye.
Diwan Gobindbux’s motto was “Pokh kano, thi ay ghano”. Plant a seed and thou shall heap a harvest. Despite the expense, Diwan left behind wealth worth more then rupees five lacs.
Diwan Gobindbux was also patriotic. In 1885 when Indian National Congress was formed, Diwan Gobindbux was on its working committee and participated in all its yearly functions. In the year 1885-1886, Sadhu Hiranand, on behalf of Sind Sabha, attended the Congress meeting, but it was Diwan Gobindbux who was the first Sindhi to be placed on the working committee. His name was known nationally.
Diwan Gobindbux expired in 1892 at the age of 42 years.
Diwan Gobindbux had one son named Mr. Lokumal who was born on June 24th 1880. He passed Matric (O level) in the year 1897. Being born in a wealthy family, the need to work for a living did not arise.
Diwan Gobindbux had left behind properties at Sakhar that earned substantial rental income. His Farms near Shikarpur also produced good income. Mr. Lokumal therefore had a comfortable life. He was fond of Cricket and Tennis and played the games as well. Mr. Lokumal had only one daughter.
For twenty years Mr. Lokumal was member of the District Local Board and Honorary Magistrate. He was also, for thirty-seven years, member of the Hyderabad Municipal Corporation. His group in the Corporation was in majority and he was called KingMaker. Mr. Lokumal was asked to preside as President of District Local Board and Municipal Corp., but he declined the offer.
Mr. Lokumal had good taste and admired beautiful things in life. His collection consisted of Quran Shariff, Holy Bible, and Shrimat Bhagwat Geeta etc. He had spent over sixty thousand Rupees towards his collection and in 1946 the collection was worth over rupees three lacs.
Mr. Lokumal had personal relationship with the Chief Minster of Sind, Sir Gulam Hussein Hidayatullah and other VIP’s. Sir Hugh Dow succeeded Governor Sir Lancet Graham. He had learnt of the wide collection of curios, antiques and ancient artifact that Mr. Lokumal had collected, and on Nov. 26th 1944 he called on Mr. Lokumal at his residence to see the same.
Accompanying the Governor were Commissioner Mr. Lombard, Hyderabad’s Collector Sardar Bahadur Mohammed Bux, Mukhi Gobindram Pritamdas Saghrani and other dignitaries. After viewing Mr. Lokumal’s collection, they had a group photograph taken.
Mr. Lokumal and the Governor Sir Dow became very intimate. The Governor, for the sake of remembrance, sent Mr. Lokumal a photograph of himself and Lady Dow in a silver frame.
Sir Hugh Dow, in June 1946 visited Patna and saw the priceless collection of books in the Library. On June 21st 1946, Sir Hugh Dow, from Ranchi, wrote to Mr. Lokumal about it, asking him to visit Patna and see the collection for himself. Mr. Lokumal had similar rapport with other officials as well, and they corresponded with each other.
Mr. Lokumal enjoyed a good respect in the community and extended help to those in need.
Diwan Gidumal, son of Diwan Adomal had one son: Diwan Mulchand who sired two sons: Diwan Har Rai and Diwan Mayaram.
From Diwan Har Rai’s roots: Diwan Shokisingh Pribhdas, son of Diwan Alimchand Har Rai.
From Diwan Mayaram’s roots his son Diwan Kishinchand and grandson Diwan Shewakram Mukhtiarkar.
Diwan Shewakram Kishinchand was born in 1848. He was Mukhtiarkar and Hyderabad’s first City Magistrate. To acquire land for laying tracks for Hyderabad – Badeen railway line, Sind Government appointed him as ‘Land Acquisition Officer’.
Diwan Shewakram was given various appointments from time to time. He was respected and held in high esteem. He maintained his dignity and tolerated no nonsense. However, he had a soft corner for the poor and needy. He heard them patiently and extended help.
Diwan Shewakram was a man of good taste and had a high standard of living. He was fond of Shikar (hunting) and music. Mahfils (parties/concerts) was a daily affair at his residence.
Diwan Shewakram expired in 1908 at the age of 60 years.
Diwan Shewakram’s wife Shrimati Jethibai was born in the year 1847. She was one year elder to him. Both Hindus and Muslims did not believe in educating their daughters. Only in extreme cases, the girls were taught Gurmukhi so that they could read Japjipuri (Jap Sahib) and Guru Granth Sahib and to read and write letters to their parents.
One such instance is that of Shrimati Puribai, mother of Mr. Parmanand Mewaram, editor of ‘Jote’ newspaper and compiler of Sindhi – English and English – Sindhi Dictionary. Shrimati Puribai was sister of Shrimati Jethibai. Both these ladies although not graduates, were very powerful in speaking Sindhi language. Their sentences would rhyme like poetry. Mr. Parmanand learnt Sindhi from his mother and Masi Shrimati Jethibai.
Diwan Bherumal M. Advani confesses that even he learnt his Sindhi rhymes from Mr. Parmanand. Shrimati Jethibai expired in the year 1923. She was 75 years old.
Diwan Shewakram’s son Diwan Udharam was born in the year 1869. He passed his Matric (O level) and joined Medical College. But due to ill health he had to quit. He had good command over English and spoke it well. He joined service for a while but quit as his father bought him farm that he cultivated (zamindari) by adapting modern methods that improved the crop yield. A portion of the farm he had reserved for gardening where he grew various fruits and flowers.
Like his father, Diwan Udharam was a man of good taste and had a high standard of living. He did not indulge in gossip. He had adapted western standards of living and was fond of shikar (hunting). He led a quiet life and in the year 1928 he expired at the age of 68.
Diwan Udharam had three sons:
Prof. Manghram Udharam (M.U.) Malkani, who in 1946 was Professor of English at Karachi’s Sind College and had written a few plays in Sindhi.
Mr. Alimchand, the second son was with his father at the farm.
The third son, Mr. Motiram was a zamindar and had taken over the reigns from his father Diwan Udharam.
Diwan Shewakram’s second son: Dr. Khemchand was born in the year 1879. He was Registered Medical Practitioner from Bombay University and Hyderabad’s foremost Eye Specialist.
Dr. Khemchand, besides being a zamindar, ran a Charitable Eye Hospital since 1903. The hospital had sleep-in facilities and was functioning in 1946.
Dr. Khemchand’s son Dr. Daulatram practiced with his father in 1939-1940.
Dr. Shewakram had two daughters. The youngest daughter Shrimati Dhanibai was educated and fluent in English. She married Mr. Bulchand Wadhumal Gidwani B. A. LL.B., and had three sons: M/s. Parmanand, Hiranand and Motiram.
Mr. Hiranand was Medical Officer with Karachi Port Trust serving at Manhori. Mr. Motiram was a Film Director at Lahore.
Diwan Shewakram’s eldest daughter Kumari Chaturbai was live in the year 1946. In childhood she suffered an eye infection that left her eyesight impaired.
Sadhu Hiranand was a widely traveled man and was very near and dear to Diwan Udharam and Diwan Shewakram. He, Sadhu Hiranand was well traveled and was aware of the existence of Braille script for the blind. Sadhu Hiranand in order to teach Braille to Kumari Chaturbai first learnt the script himself and then taught her. This enabled Kumari Chaturbai to learn English.
After Sadhu Hiranand’s demise, Kumari Chaturbai learnt to read Sanskrit in Braille, and wrote many books in Sindhi, Sanskrit and English in Braille and had her own library. She was in the year 1946 around 75 years of age.
Dr. Khemchand Shewakram had five sons:
His eldest son Mr. Tolaram passed his B.Sc. (Technology) from Manchester University and in 1946 was an electrical engineer at Bradford England.
Dr. Khemchand’s second son Mr. Jaikrishin and fourth son Mr. Parsram were zamindars.
Dr. Khemchand’s fifth son Gul was a minor in 1946 and his third son was Dr. Daulatram was an eye specialist and practiced with him.
Dr. Khemchand’s second son Mr. Jaikrishin zamindar got married to Shrimati Lila, daughter of Diwan Hassomal Wilayatrai Thadani who was a zamindar. Shrimati Lila was a pious lady and a devotee of Guru Nanak.
On November 1st 1944 Shrimati Lila accompanied by her sister went to Karachi to participate in the celebrations of Guru Nanak’s birthday at Gur Mandir located on Bunder Road Extension when she suddenly fell ill and had to be admitted in Lady Dafron Hospital. Shrimati Lila’s sister went to Gur Mandir and while reading the Guru Granth Sahib, she came across the following Gur wani:
“ Jiske Sir Uooper Toon, Swami, So Dukh Kaysa Paway”. Meaning:
He who stands guard over, O Lord, – How can he/she suffer.
On her return to hospital, just as she was about to recite the Gur Wani to her sister, Shrimati Lila narated the same Gur wani (words) and breathed her last breath.
Nukh: – Dadeja.
Manghermalani are Arorvanshi. See Arorvanshi chapter. They left Aror/Alor district Rohiri, and migrated to Punjab.
Their ancestor Diwan Manghermal, due some misunderstanding, separated from his brothers and returned to Sind. Both he and his son Diwan Metharam worked for the Mirs and served their masters diligently and had won their confidence. Later Diwan Manghermal was deputed to Afghanistan as Mirs’ emissary.
The British forces defeated Mirs and conquered Sind. Some well wishers of the Mirs went to London to plead for handing back Sind to Mirs. One amongst them was Diwan Metharam. After receiving empty assurances, they returned to Sind and found that all that was coming forth from the British for the Mirs was a Political Pension. It was only Mir Ali Murad Khan who received Kherpur State to rule. Shortly thereafter, Diwan Manghermal expired.
After Diwan Manghermal’s death, no one from their family held any important post in the Government. The Manghermalanis then opted for education and sought alternate vocations and prospered. In Sind, they lived at Jacobabad.
Nukh: – Makhija.
There are Amils and Bhaibunds families having Makhija as Nukh and they hail from Aror (Alwar) district Rohiri. During the Arab invasion in the year 711, they migrated to Punjab and returned during the Kalhora reign.
Mirchandani, Kirpalani, Idnani and Vaswanis came to Sind at the same time. Mirchandanis first stayed at Khudabad near Dadoo that was then the capital of Sind and ruled by Miya Noor Mohd. Kalhora. In the year 1759, the Khosas (a caste amongst the Muslims) burnt Khudabad that led to some Mirchandanis fleeing to Saywan, where they lived till the partition of India (1947).
The influx to Hyderabad by Amils, Mirchandanis, Kirpalanis and Bhaibunds began during Mir Fatehali Khan’s reign. Bhaibunds took possession of vacant plots of land from Qilo to Chhotki Ghitti. Mirchandanis and Kirpalanis occupied area around the Tomb of Sarwar. Others who followed opted for plots towards Seray Ghat. This resulted in Mirchandanis and Kirpalanis residing in the center of the city. Prior to the arrival of Mirchandanis, fishmongers lived in the Mirchandani Ghitti. Hence the Ghitti was referred to as ‘Purano Machhi Hatt’.
Mirchandanis along with many Amils and Bhaibunds migrated to Sind from Punjab and are Guru Nanak’s Sikhs (disciples) in addition to being Hindu.
In every street arrangements were made to install a Tikano (Gurdwara) with a Bawa (Bao-Granthi-Pujari- Pathi) and one Brahmin. Mirchandani Gurdwara was located in Mirchandani Ghitti. This Gurdwara was installed by Guru Pota Baba Bhojchand Vedi during the year 1841-1842.
During the British rule, Diwan Mirchand Murardas’ brother Mr. Mitumal (Mitimal- Mitomal), son of Diwan Murardas Adomal and his Grandfather’s brother Mr. Hasrajmal’s family lived near Mirchandani Ghitti.
Mr. Adatmal’s son Mr. Murardas had two sons: Mr. Mirchand and Mr. Mitumal. Mr. Mirchand was the eldest and respected in the community. Mr. Hasrajmal’s descendants called themselves Mirchandani. Similarly descendants of Mr. Mitumal also called themselves Mirchandani. Some of them adapted their Nukh ‘Makhija’ as their surname.
Due to shortage of accommodation, some Makhijanis shifted to Diwan Suratsingh Fozdar Ghitti and Gosain Surajgar wari Ghitti. Later some of them moved to Navabad and Old Post Office Road.
Thereafter Hirabad developed and many Mirchandanis shifted there while others went to Karachi. By 1946 there were only two Mirchandani families living in the Mirchandani Ghitti.
The Mirchandanis, during Mirs reign, were Sazawalkars (Canal Supervisors). When the British came, they, the Sazawalkars, hid their tools, by which they used to measure the depth and width of the canals. In the absence of tools, the Mirchandanis thought that the British would plead with them to return to their duties.
Many descendants of Mirchandanis were in 1946 Executive and Superintendent Engineers and held important posts.
Mirchandani: – Branches
According to Diwan Bherumal M. Advani, name of the elder (forefather) of Mirchandani is not known to any one. Mirchandani Shajro (Family Tree) starts with Mr. Vanjaromal. Diwan Bherumal has stated in his volume that Mr. Vanjaromal was an imaginary figure.
Mr. Vanjaromal had two sons: Mr. Hasrajmal and Mr. Adatmal.
Mr. Adatmal’s son, Mr. Murardas had two sons: Mr. Mitumal and Mr. Mirchand. Descendants of both these brothers call themselves Mirchandani.
Hasrajmalani, Matimalani and Mirchandani are all off shoots of one family. Details of each family Diwan Bherumal has given separately.
Mirchandani of Mirchandani Ghitti.
Diwan Hasrajmal Vanjaromal’s family (Hasrajmalani), shifted from Mirchandani Ghitti to Kirpalani Ghitti.
From Diwan Hasrajmal’s roots: Mr. Rochiram, Mr. Nanikram and Mr. Parumal.
Diwan Parumal’s son was Diwan Thawardas who sired Diwan Udharam. Diwan Udharam was an Assistant Sindhi Translator.
The Arabi Sindhi script that we use today was created in July 1853. A committee was appointed to formulate the script and Diwan Udharam was a member of said committee. Diwan Udharam was responsible for compiling and publishing books in Sindhi and one of those books was taught in the first grade of the schools. He also helped in compiling the first ‘Sindhi Dictionary’.
Diwan Udharam had three sons: Diwan Ramchand who was a Police Inspector. The other son Mr. Motiram had expired. The third son was Mr. Shamdas.
Diwan Udharam’s brother Diwan Vasanmal was a Mukhtiarkar (Revenue Officer). His son Mr. Dayaram had retired as Head Master in 1946.
Mr. Dayaram’s son Mr. B. D. (Bhagchand Dayaram) Mirchandani) had passed his ICS (Indian Civil Service) and in 1946 he was Sessions Judge.
Mr. Udharam’s other brother was Diwan Khushiram whose son Mr. Pohumal was a zamindar.
Descendents of Mirchand’s son Diwan Sajansingh called themselves Raimalani.
Raimal had six sons. One of the sons was Diwan Ramsingh who sired Munshi Jashansingh and Mr. Daulatsingh.
Mr. Daulatsingh married sister of Rai Bahadur Pribhdas Shewakram, founder of Nav Vidyalaya School. He had one son who expired in infancy.
Munshi Jashansingh, the elder brother sired two sons: Mr. Hirasingh who was a Customs officer and Mr. Gurmukhsingh was an Advocate.
Mr. Hirasingh sired Mr. Rewachand, Mr. Hakumatrai and others.
Mr. Rewachand was born on 23 Oct 1889. He passed his BA in the year 1909 and taught in the Nav Vidyalaya from 1910 to 1914. In the year 1912, while teaching at Nav Vidyalaya, he passed his MA. From July 1914 to Sept. 1922 he was Professor of Philosophy.
In Sept. 1922 Mr. Rewachand joined the Customs Dept. as an Appraiser and was soon promoted to the rank of Head Appraiser. In April 1945 he was raised to the rank of Asst. Collector.
In the year 1930, Mr. Rewachand sponsored Karachi Social Service League High School that was later renamed as Hiranand Nandlal Academy.
Mr. Rewachand was an honest and forthright man and urged others to practice the same. In 1930, to reform the Hindu prisoners lodged in Karachi District Jail, Sind Government took help from Mr. Rewachand.
Mr. Rewachand in the year 1947 was an honorary secretary and trustee of the Nav Vidhan Mandir located at Mission Road and had held that post since 1931.
Mr. Rewachand had five sons. His son Mr. Fatehchand was in the Army in the Viceroy Commission. Mr. Rewachand’s second son Mr. Sunderdas was born on Jan. 28 1917 and in 1947 he was Deputy Superintendent of Police. Mr. Rewachand’s other three sons were M/s. Anand, Kirpal (Bevin Boy) and Vishnu.
Mirchandani of Kirpalani Ghitti.
Mr. Mirchand son of Mr. Murardas had four sons: M/s. Kishinchand, Bhawanidas, Sajansingh and Bakhtchand.
Mr. Kishinchand had one son: Mr. Hassomal.
Mr. Bhawanidas had two sons: M/s. Assardas and Assumal.
Grandson of Mr. Assumal was Diwan Anuprai Dayaram. They called themselves ‘Anuprani’.
Diwan Anuprai had four sons: (1) Diwan Rijhumal, whose sons: Diwan Rambux Mukhtiarkar and Diwan Gianchand whose ‘Otaq’ (back room of an office, was a meeting place where only men were allowed entry) was famous in the city.
(2) Diwan Deomal and (3) Diwan Hashmatrai Daftardar (Revenue Officer – Registrar). Diwan Hashmatrai’s son Dr. Naraindas was a prominent doctor at Karachi.
Diwan Assumal’s other grandson: Diwan Bhupatrai Atalrai who sired eight sons and called themselves “Bhuptani”. Prominent amongst them was Diwan Tanumal Shewakram retired Superintendent Engineer.
Diwan Shewakram’s brother was Diwan Naraindas Bhupatrai, son of Mr. Atalrai Assumal. Diwan Naraindas had four sons: 1) M/s. Thirthdas, whose grandson was Master Verhomal Khemchand, 2) Rewachand, 3) Gurmukhdas, and 4) Thadomal Overseer.
Diwan Gurmukhdas Naraindas was born in 1848 and worked as a Surveyor for few years. He then passed Law and joined Diwan Rochiram Gulrajani Advocate as a partner. Both dressed alike and wore identical clothes. They worked and spent time together and were lifetime buddies. Diwan Gurmukhdas practiced both Civil and Criminal Law. Even hawkers and venders kept away from Mirchandani Ghitti lest it may annoy him. Diwan Gurmukhdas expired in the years 1900-1901 due to a lung disease. He was 53 years old.
Diwan Gurmukhdas had six sons. The eldest son Mr. Issardas Thhekedar (Contractor) had expired prior to 1946.
Diwan Gurmukhdas’ second son Diwan Dingomal was born in 1880. In 1896, he passed his Matric (O level) and ranked first in History and English subjects. He won ‘Keshorai’ Prize. Mr. Keshorai was Head Master of the Hyderabad High School. Diwan Dingomal then, in 1901, passed his BA exam from D. J. Sind College, Karachi and joined Revenue Dept.
Between 1901 to 1919, Diwan Dingomal rose from the rank of Mukhtiarkar (District Administrator) to Resident Magistrate of Navsheri Firoz and finally became Shikarpur’s City Magistrate.
In July 1919, Diwan Dingomal was appointed as Chief Officer of the Hyderabad District Local Board and held the post till 1928. In 1927 Diwan Dingomal was appointed Permanent Deputy Collector and retired from that post on March 1st. 1935.
From 1936 to 1938, Diwan Dingomal was President of Sind Hindu Provident Society. In 1937 he was appointed Special First Class Magistrate, a post that he held for two year. Diwan Dingomal took interest and participated in the religious and social functions. He was Trustee of Hirabad Gur Sangat and member of working committee of Khudabadi Amil Panchayat. Diwan Dingomal was also President of Hyderabad Hindu Sabha and Vice President of Provincial Hindu Sabha.
Mr. Chuharmal son of Diwan Dingomal was born in March 1911 and passed his Matric (O level) in 1927. He did his F.Y.A (First year Arts.) at Hyderabad’s D. J. National College and Inter Arts from Karachi’s D.J. Sind College.
In 1931, Mr. Chuharmal was selected by The Railway Board to under go special first class apprentice course and was sent at Govt. expense to Jamalpur for training at Railway’s Mechanical Engineering Depot where he stayed for four years. Thereafter he was sent abroad for two years for further training. On his return, Mr. Chuharmal was appointed Asst. Mechanical Engineer of East India Railways. In 1946 he was posted at Madura as District Mechanical Engineer.
Mr. Gopal the other son of Diwan Dingomal was born on Feb. 3rd 1923. Right from the young age he was bright and hardworking and received double promotions in the school. Mr. Gopal won many prizes from Hyderabad’s Gurdasmal High School. He had leaning towards the religion and visited Gur Sangat regularly. Mr. Gopal passed Matric (O level) in 1938 and joined D. J. Sind College at Karachi to do his First Year Arts.
On Sept. 25th 1937, Mr. Gopal along with Prof. Ram Panjwani and ten other students went for a picnic to Manhoro (Manhoro: an island off Kayamari at Karachi). They were in a boat when at about 8.30 p.m. a ship bearing name ‘Bindra’ collided with it. The boat capsized and five lives were lost. One amongst them was Mr. Gopal. Grief gripped entire Sind at the tragedy.
The third son of Diwan Gurmukhdas was Mr. Karamchand who was the editor of ‘Sind Journal’. Later, he was Sub. Editor of Karachi’s ‘Sind Observer’ and retired as its Editor. His son Mr. Sanwaldas in 1946 was Asst. Director of the Civil Supplies.
The fourth son of Diwan Gurmukhdas was Mr. Sobhraj Advocate. Fifth son: Mr. Kewalram was an insurance agent. The sixth son was Mr. Kundanmal BA. In 1946 Mr. Kundanmal worked with Asst. Sindhi Translator’s Office.
Diwan Nanikram, one of the eight sons of Diwan Bhupatrai Atalrai, worked with Revenue Department. He had five sons: M/s. Topandas, Lilaram, Tahilram, Parsram and Shamdas.
Diwan Parsram Nanikram was born in 1860. Sindhis were considered efficient, loyal, faithful and dedicated workers. They were appointed by the Govt. to hold important posts. Diwan Parsram had these qualifications and was appointed as Mukhtiarkar (District Administrator) and First Class Magistrate. His superiors were appeased and happy with him.
Diwan Parsram Nanikram was offered post of Deputy Collector provided he learnt English. But that did not happen. Diwan Parsram remained Mukhtiarkar and held the charge of Jamesabad, Amar Kot, Nagar Parker and Chhachhri.
As First Class Magistrate, Diwan Parsram gave benefit of doubt to the accused. The guilty received caution and light sentences with a warning to either go straight or end up in jail. He retired in the year 1916.
After retirement Diwan Parsram spent time doing social work and helped Mirchandanis and others. He expired in the year 1933 at the age of 73. A large number of mourners gathered on hearing the news of his demise and attended the funeral.
Diwan Parsram had two daughters and three sons. Late Diwan Hiranand Santukram Advani Advocate was married to his eldest daughter. His other son-in-law was Mr. Mulchand Chandumal Gidwani B.A. who in 1946 was a teacher at Govt. High School.
Amongst the sons of Diwan Parsram, Mr. Lokumal B.Sc. was member of Grade Selection Board of the Karachi Govt. High School. The second son, Mr. Dayaram was a journalist.
Diwan Parsram’s third son Mr. Hassomal was born on Sept. 17 1903. He attended Navalrai Hiranand Academy, Hyderabad College and Sydenham College of Commerce, Bombay. After passing B. Com. Degree, he joined Sind Co-Operative Bank as an Asst. Accountant. Thereafter Mr. Hassomal became Inspector and Chief Inspector of Co-Operative Societies. Mr. Hassomal thereafter joined Sind Provincial Co-Operative Bank as its Manger and served at Larkana, Hyderabad and at Karachi. He also officiated as Acting General Manger.
While still in College, Mr. Hassomal participated in the student movement and officiated as their leader and secretary. He was Joint Secretary of the Bombay wing of the Youth League.
In 1920, Mahatma Gandhi awakened the nation with a call for freedom and independence. This had an effect on Mr. Hassomal. He switched over to wearing khadi clothes.
Descendants of Diwan Assardas Bhawanidas, grandson of Diwan Mirchand, were called Assardasani. Prominent amongst them: Diwan Bhagchand Fatehchand, Diwan Kishinchand Naumal (father of Mr. Lekhraj “Aziz” poet), and Diwan Naraindas Tuljaram (father of Diwan Ghanshamdas Executive Engineer).
Diwan Sajansingh Mirchand’s descendants were called Raimalani. Diwan Raimal had six sons: M/s. Udharam, Hemandas, Madhavdas, Jethmal, Ramsingh and Thakurdas.
From Diwan Jethmal’s roots came Master Motiram Teckchand. Master Motiram’s grandfather was Diwan Shamsingh son of Diwan Jethmal.
Diwan Ramsingh had two sons: Munshi Jashansingh and Mr. Daulatsingh.
Munshi Jashansingh’s grandson was Mr. Rewachand Hirasingh. Mr. Rewachand was head of the Customs Appraising Dept. In 1946 he had retired and was on pension.
Diwan Thakurdas had four sons: M/s. Shewakram, Udharam, Lekhraj and Charatsingh. Charatsingh’s son Mr. Issardas was renowned novelist and wrote fiction stories.
There were Mirchandanis in Larkana as well. Amongst them was one Mr. Khirajmal who was employed in private service. He had a large family and low income. Hence, he could not afford to leave Larkana.
Mr. Mitimal’s (younger brother of Mr. Mirchand) descendants were called Mitimalani. From his roots came Diwan Gianchand Amalrai.
Diwan Gianchand was a Range Forest Officer. He had five sons. Eldest son Mr. Gopaldas had expired. His second son Mr. Daryadinomal was with Standard Oil Company and retired in 1946. Diwan Gianchand’s third son was Diwan Bagomal, who retired as a Deputy Collector. His fourth son Mr. Maniram was an Iron merchant at Karachi and Diwan Gianchand’s fifth son was Dr. Ghanshamdas.
Diwan Gianchand’s father Diwan Amalrai, was brother of Munshi Adomal. Munshi Adomal lived in Diwan Suratsingh Fozdar Ghitti.
Munshi Adomal’s son Mr. Parmanand and his children changed their surname from Mirchandani to Chhablani. Mr. Hassomal Parmanand Chhablani was an Engineer and retired in the year 1946.
Mirchandanis of Fozdari Ghitti.
Diwan Mitimal Mirchand had three sons: M/s. Amirchand, Chhatomal and Pritamdas. Their descendants resided in Fozdari Ghitti.
Diwan Gajsingh Rajmal, grand son of Diwan Phulchand Amirchand had two sons: M/s. Jotsingh and Amarsingh.
Diwan Jotsingh’s sons: Mr. Maneckrai and others. One of Diwan Amarsingh’s grandsons was Master Nanikram Dharamdas. He was a novelist.
Diwan Nangomal was the son of Diwan Chhatomal. Diwan Nangomal’s son Mr. Jianmal had two sons: M/s. Jethmal and Hassanand.
Diwan Hassanand’s son Diwan Premchand sired two sons: Diwan Kotumal and Diwan Ramrai. Diwan Kotumal’s sons: Diwan Teckchand (and his son Mr. Metharam Retired Post Master), and Diwan Khemchand (and his son Mr. Rupchand), and Mr. Shokiram.
Diwan Jethmal Jianmal sired three sons: Mr. Mangatram (his son Mr. Mulram and his son Mr. Takhatram and others). The second son was Mr. Harumal (his sons Diwan Rambux, M/s. Gopaldas and Chellaram) and Mr. Mangharmal.
Diwan Chelaram Harumal was born around the year 1842. He was Sub. Overseer. After retirement he undertook contracts for supplies to Engineering Dept. Diwan Chellaram was Mukhi of Fozdar Ghitti. He expired in Sept. 1904 at the age of 62.
Diwan Chelaram had three sons: Late Mr. Dayaram, Late Mr. Motumal and Mr. Varomal.
Mr. Dayaram was born around the year 1872-1873. He was a Govt. City Surveyor and expired on Sept. 23rd 1924 at the age of 52 years. Mr. Dayaram lived at Karachi in Faiz Husseini Building, opposite Govt. High School. In his memory his wife Shrimati Uplibai constructed a Drinking Water Fountain for public convenience near the school. Some time later Shrimati Uplibai also passed away. They had no children.
Mr. Varomal Chelaram was born on 14th March 1883. After passing BA & LL.B., he practiced Law from 1907 to 1910 at Karachi. In the year 1911, he was appointed Sub. Judge and was raised to the rank of Resident Magistrate. Later he was Additional Sessions, and Sessions Judge. He, Mr. Varomal, retired on Sept. 1st 1939. After retirement he was legal advisor to the Court of Wards & Encumbered Estates. In addition, he was also appointed as Debt Conciliation Officer for Hyderabad and Karachi.
Mr. Varomal had five sons. The eldest son Mr. Gidumal was born at Shikarpur on 20th May 1911. Like his father, Mr. Gidumal passed Law and practiced at Hyderabad. He specialized in both Civil and Criminal Law.
Mr. Varomal’s second son Mr. Kishinchand worked with The British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC).
Diwan Mitimal’s third son was Mr. Pritamdas. He had three sons: M/s. Hotchand, Mulchand and Harbuxrai.
From the roots of Diwan Hotchand came: Diwan Khanchand Jichandrai, Diwan Kalachand Kiratrai, Mr. Ramchand Alimchand Advocate, Mr. Jhamatmal Valiram Advocate, Mr. Hemandas son of Mr. Chandiram Partabrai of Colombo and Diwan Maniram Kansingh Mukhtiarkar.
Diwan Maniram’s one son Diwan Udharam did his ICS (Indian Civil Service) exam and was at first a Collector, then District Magistrate and finally Revenue Commissioner of Sind. Diwan Udharam was Municipal Commissioner of Bombay in 1946.
Diwan Hotchand’s second son was Diwan Kalachand. He had two sons. Mr. Awatrai and Mr. Diyaryomal.
Diwan Awatrai had five sons: Diwan Kishinchand, Master Kimatrai (his son Dr. Udharam and others), Diwan Panjumal (his son Mr. Bassarmal alias Bahadursingh), Diwan Amritrai and Diwan Assudomal.
Diwan Amritrai’s son Mr. Khemchand (Christen) was the editor of ‘Sind Journal’ and ‘Sindvasi’ newspaper.
Diwan Amritrai’s other son was Master Karamchand. His son Mr. Hiranand BA, was the editor of Karachi’s ‘Hindu’ newspaper.
Diwan Diyaryomal’s two other son were: Diwan Jairamdas (he had no children) and Diwan Balchand. From Diwan Balchand’s roots: Mr. Khanchand Bulchand Jailer, Mr. Hotchand Gianchand Excise Inspector and others.
(The following information was compiled and printed by Diwan Bherumal M. Advani in his Part Two of ‘Sind Jay Hindun Jee Tareekh’ published in early 1947).
Diwan Matomal (Matimalani) was brother of Diwan Mirchand, (forefather of Mirchandanis). Diwan Matomal had three sons: M/s. Amirchand, Chhatomal and Pritamdas.
From the roots of Diwan Pritamdas came Diwan Jagatrai Joharmal and his brother Diwan Murjmal Joharmal.
Grandsons of Diwan Jagatrai were Diwan Khanchand Jeechandrai Surveyor and others.
Diwan Murjmal’s son was Diwan Kiratrai. Diwan Kiratrai had four sons: Diwan Rattanchand (his offspring Diwan Jiwatram and others), Diwan Kalachand, Mister Udharam and Mr. Hashmatrai (Pal) Advocate.
Diwan Kalachand Kiratrai was born at Hyderabad on April 30th 1858. He could read and write Sindhi, Urdu, and Farsi. Though he had studied English only up to the sixth grade, Diwan Kalachand was well versed with the language.
Child marriages were common in those days, and he, Diwan Kalachand, at the age of twenty-one married daughter of Diwan Metharam Mangharmalani. One year after marriage, Diwan Kalachand passed Engineering from Hyderabad Training College and in Oct. 1878 was appointed Sub. Overseer of the Qanber Division.
While at Qanber, Diwan Kalachand stayed in the ashram of Sain Wilayatrai and Sain Jiwatsingh with whom he had earlier come in contact. Diwan Kalachand was influenced by their preaching and proclaimed Sain Jiwatsingh as his guru. While living in the ashram he read Guru Granth Sahib, Ramayana, books written by Sufis in Farsi, Bible and Quran Sharrif and shared his knowledge with others.
Diwan Kalachand was a Sant (Godly and pious) and kept distance from those who offered bribe. By his sheer hard and honest work he was promoted to the rank of Sub. Engineer.
During Diwan Kalachand’s tenor, a Mr. Chandnani, who was then the Executive
Engineer, suddenly expired at Tharoo Shah. Mr. Chandnani’s family lived at Hyderabad. The Chief Engineer, who was an Englishman, suggested to Diwan Kalachand to take Mr. Chandnani’s body to Hyderabad to enable his family to perform the last rites.
To make arrangement, Diwan Kalachand left Tharoo Shah on a horse ahead of cortege carrying the body for Pad Idan Station. The body was to follow carried by the pallbearers. But before the body could reach the station, the train had arrived and was ready to depart. Diwan Kalachand pleaded with the stationmaster to delay the train. Stationmaster refused. But, as luck would have it, engine of the train suddenly caught fire. By the time the fire was extinguished, the body had been loaded on the train.
Diwan Kalachand opted for pension in the year 1930. He had made a study of herbal medication and dispensed free medical aid. He wrote books on Uttam Gyan (Supreme Spiritual Knowledge) viz. Jeevan Jyotiun, Uttam Tirth Athwa, Jap Sahib, Uttam Haar, Saat Upna Si Vachan, Sat Dharam and Kiso Dalshad Begam Jo.
Diwan Kalachand expired on Aug. 11 1935, and left behind three sons: M/s. Tejumal, Vishindas and Ramchand.
Mr. Tejumal Kalachand was born on June 22 1883. He had passed his BA & LL.B. and practiced law at Hyderabad.
Mr. Tejumal’s son Mr. Mohanlal also passed his B. A. & LL.B. and in the year 1947 he was an Advocate and later Police Prosecutor.
Mr. Tejumal’s second son Mr. Maneckrai had passed his Mechanical & Electrical Engineering (BA, BE), and worked with M/s. Valkarts Bros. at Mirpur Khas.
From the above-mentioned Matimalani roots came Diwan Awatrai who had five sons: M/s. Kishinchand, Master Kimatrai (his son Dr. Udharam and others), Amratrai and Assudomal.
Diwan Amratrai had two sons: Diwan Khemchand and Diwan Karamchand (his son Mr. Hiranand, Editor of ‘Hindu”)’.
Diwan Assudomal was a celibate.
Mr. Khemchand Amratrai was born on Jan. 18 1866. His childhood friend Mr. Parmanand Mewaram was younger to him in age by ten to twelve days. Mr. Parmanand studied English upto fifth grade while Mr. Khemchand passed Matric. Later he started his own private school at Hyderabad and taught English up to third grade.
In the year 1888, Sadhu Hiranand inaugurated ‘The Union Academy’. Mr. Khemchand amalgamated his school with the Union Academy thereby giving students an opportunity to study all the seven grades under one roof. Mr. Khemchand later joined the Academy as a teacher.
Mr. Parmanand Mewaram was teaching at the Academy when Mr. Khemchand joined. The other teachers who taught at the Academy were Master Sadhu Hiranand, Diwan Pribhdas Shewakram (who later was bestowed the title of Rai Bahadur), Babu Nandlal Sen and Babu Bhawani Charan Banerji (Upadhiya Brahm Bandu). All the four were Brahmo (a religious Sect). Influenced by them both Mr. Khemchand and Mr. Parmanand joined the sect.
Later, Babu Bhawani, in the company and influence of few Christian Priests accepted Christianity and became a Protestant. But, later he opted to become Roman Catholic instead. In his company, in the year 1891-1892, both Mr. Khemchand and Mr. Parmanand converted to Christianity. They changed their names to Thomas and Alex respectively. Mr. Khemchand’s youngest daughter also converted and was renamed Agnes. In 1947 she was the principal of Hyderabad’s Kundanmal Girls High School.
Soon after converting, the three left the Academy. Babu Bhawani and Mr. Khemchand took to journalism and in 1896 Mr. Parmanand published ‘Jyot’, a newspaper.
Mr. Khemchand was editor of English newspaper ‘Hyderabad Journal’ that was later called ‘Sind Journal’ and Sindhi newspapers called ‘Parbhat’ & ‘Sindvasi’. Working in the press effected his eyesight to the extent that he was unable to move around on his own, but that did not deter him from writing for the papers. In appreciation, Govt. of Sind gifted him with land. Mr. Khemchand expired on Dec. 24 1941.
THE OTHER MIRCHANDANIS: –
In Diwan Suratsingh Fozdari Ghitti, there lived the other Mirchandanis who were from the roots of Munshi Jethmal Phulchand. Munshi Jethmal was a Tapdar (Revenue Officer) and opted for pension in 1912. He then moved to Karachi where his sons were gainfully employed. Munshi Jethmal expired in the year 1923. He left behind four sons: M/s. Hiranand, Bhupatrai, Santdas and Udharam. Munshi Jethmal also had three daughters. Two of them had expired. The third daughter Shrimati Rukmanibai (Viranbai) was married to Mr. Hassomal Pribhdas Punwani.
Munshi Jethmal’s son Mr. Hiranand expired in 1940. His other son Mr. Bhupatrai had worked as cashier with the ‘Commanding Royal Engineers’ at Karachi and had since retired. In 1947 he was 69 years old. Mr. Bhupatrai had two sons who were in service.
Munshi Jethmal’s third son Mr. Santdas was born in the year 1893 and worked with Burma Shell Co. at Karachi. In the year 1941, while at work he felt pain in his chest and left office for home. Reaching home he collapsed and passed away. Mr. Santdas left behind four sons.
Munshi Jethmal’s fourth son Mr. Udharam was born around the year 1896. After passing Matric he worked as a clerk in the High Court and later joined Customs Dept. as Superintendent of Import Department. In the year 1947 he was transferred to Bombay.
Mirchandanis of Gosain Ghitti.
Those Mirchandanis who lived in Gosain Surajgar Ghitti adapted their Nukh as their surname and called themselves ‘Makhijani’.
These Makhijanis are descendants of Diwan Mitimal’s grandson: Diwan Harbuxrai Pritamdas. From his roots came: Diwan Tharumal Karamchand, Diwan Sobhraj Bagasingh, Diwan Issardas Chellasingh (father of Master Parmanand of Gur Sangat), Diwan Partabsingh Jagatsingh and others.
From the same roots came Mr. Rewachand Gianchand alias Amina Nand (Christen). He was very prominent. He founded the “Boys Own Home School” at Calcutta.
Some Khudabadi Bhaibunds lived in Mirchandani Ghitti and in its surrounding area. Being neighbors they participated in all the Mirchandani functions and considered themselves as Mirchandanis. To name a few of those Khudabadi Bhaibund Mirchandanis: Vice Principal Mr. Bulchand Karamchand of Nav Vidyalaya, his cousin Bhai Watumal Jhamandas of Honolulu, Hawaii and Bhai Shewakram Jhamandas & others.
Nukh: – Jethra.
Notanis lived at Bhareen District Navsheri Firoz. Bhareen was constructed by a Muslim ruler named Bharhi around 250 years ago.
Notani’s ancestor Diwan Jhamandas had three sons. His second son was Diwan Notandas.
During the reign of the Mirs, the zamindars and farmers were required to give a portion of their crop to the Mirs in lieu of taxes. To collect their revenue, the Mirs had employed Notanis as Revenue collectors and were called ‘Anbardars’ (granary keeper). The Notanis were Anbardars.
Notanis, after collecting the taxes were required to proceed to Hyderabad to submit accounts and deposit the tax collected with the Mirs. The Notanis Anbardars, to facilitate their stay at Hyderabad, jointly constructed a house near the residence of Rajarshi Diwan Dayaram Gidumal.
Later, Rai Bahadur Diwan Pahlajrai’s father Diwan Khemchand Notani bought over the shares of other Notanis and kept the house for his exclusive use. He reconstructed the house to suit his own needs, making provision for his office (Kothi-Otaq) and residence. Diwan Manghomal Issardas Idnani had lived in Diwan Khemchand’s house for many years.
Between the years 1880 to 1884, Lord Rupin introduced concept of Municipal Corporations and from the year 1885 the Corporation started to function. Diwan Hiranand Notandas, a zamindar and member of Sahiti Panchayat was appointed member of Bhareen Municipality.
After Diwan Hiranand, his younger brother Diwan Khemchand (the fourth son of Diwan Notandas) was Sahiti’s most respectable and influential man. Though Diwan Khemchand was a contractor but he choose to look after his farms and became a zamindar. He was member of the Bhareen Sanitary Committee and also member of the managing committee of the English School. Diwan Khemchand had keen interest in the educational and panchayats affairs. He expired in the year 1903.
After Diwan Khemchand, his son Diwan Pahlajrai was Sahiti community’s most renowned and respected man. Diwan Pahlajrai was born at Bhareen and after passing Engineering he joined Govt. Engineering Dept. where he rose from the rank of Sub. Overseer to Sub. Engineer and Honorary Asst. Engineer. This post was the highest rank a person with Diwan Pahlajrai’s qualifications could reach.
Appreciating Diwan Pahlajrai’s accomplishments, the Government bestowed upon him the title of ‘Rai Bahadur’. Diwan Pahlajrai spent most of his years at ‘Shah Bunder’ and helped the unemployed youths to secure jobs. Diwan Pahlajrai had his own property at Karachi but after his retirement he went back to Bhareen. Diwan Pahlajrai was a devoted man and wanted to improve the status of the mankind in Sind and serve the country. His pension papers had not yet been processed when, alas, he expired in April 1916, leaving behind a daughter and four sons. While at Bhareen, he with the aid of modern technology had got water wells dug.
Diwan Pahlajrai’s sons: M/s. Parmanand, Kimatrai, Sadhuram and Gagandas. Diwan Pahlajrai’s brother Diwan Gurmukhdas zamindar aged 63, was living in the year 1946.
Diwan Parmanand, a pious man, first worked as a Govt. servant and later quit to look after his farms. In 1946 he was living at Bhareen devoting his time to praising the Lord in the company of Sadhus and Sants.
Diwan Kimatrai Pahlajrai was born in 1897. After finishing school he went back to his village Jatti and did zamindari. He was member of the Local and School Boards.
In the year 1931, Diwan Kimatrai moved to Bhareen to look after his land that he had received in his family separation. In 1946 he was chairman of Sanitation Committee. Diwan Kimatrai was one of the founders of Bhareen School. His son Mr. Lokumal, in the year 1946, had passed his B. A. and was a novelist.
Diwan Sadhuram Pahlajrai was a Doctor. After doing his M.B.B.S. he had gone to England for higher degree. In 1946, he was Health Officer at Nawabshah.
Diwan Gagandas Pahlajrai, after passing his English fifth grade, first joined Govt. service but later he opted for zamindari. In 1946, he joined Seth Ajoomal Lilaram in his business as a partner.
‘Vahni’ in Sanskrit means ‘Fire’. From this word was derived ‘Vahnyan’. The pronunciation thereafter changed to ‘Vanhan’, meaning: ‘Aagahya’ or ‘Baah-wara’. Most of Vanhan were Halwai (Mithaiwala), Pakoraii (Bajiawala), Bhogri (Chanawala), Thhathra (Coppersmiths) and Sonara (goldsmiths). Their vocation was connected to fire.
Vanhan pronunciation gradually changed to ‘Vava’ also.
The ‘Vava’ are originally from Ayodhiya (Aodh), and have their links connected to the roots of Shri Ramachandra’s son Kush. They worship ‘Devi Mata’ and are Khatri Rajputs from Suryavanshi family. However having opted to trade they are now considered ‘Vaishas’ (Traders).
Vanhan and or Vava’s ancestors had accompanied their Guru Sawai Jasraj when he came to Sind with the Thadanis.
In 1946, Many of the Vavas were highly educated and some were Doctors, Advocates and in Govt. service.
Nukh: Rahta Sahta.
Aswanis hail from Mori district Ghachiri (Gachiray). During the reign of Mir Fateh Ali Khan they came to Hyderabad on some business errand and decided to stay on. Their surname is named after their forefather Bhai Assumal.
The ‘Gachiraee’ as they were called in 1946, had their own panchayat and selected their Mukhi from within their Gachiraee group.
Some of the Aswanis were graduates and some in service and trade.
Ailanis hail from Tando Mohd. Khan. They were wealthy merchants (Seths). Their forefather was Seth Aildas Badomal.
Seth Aildas had seven sons. His two sons, Seth Khemchand and Seth Kesomal were closely connected with Honorable Seth Harchandrai Vishindas Bharvani.
Seth Kesomal’s son Seth Gianchand was a Mukhi and most influential man of Tando Mohd. Khan. Seth Gianchand was maternal grand father (Nano) of Principal Bharvani of Hyderabad College.
‘The Source of Sindhi Surnames’ is a translation into English, by Mr. Narain Sobhraj Kimatrai from the original in Sindhi by Mr. Diwan Bherumal Mahirchand Advani