Chapter 3




















Ahujas are Arorvanshi. At the time of Arab invasion an exodus took place in Sind and many Ahujas moved to Punjab. A few of them are Arya Samajis but most of them are followers of Guru Nanak. 

The Ahujas living in Fazalka District Firozpur and nearby areas were zamindars and traders. Some of them were wealthy. In Multan and other places they held important posts.

During the Kalhoras reign many Ahujas migrated to Sind and settled at Navsheri Abri in Madeji District and became zamindars. During the British rule, Sindhu River engulfed Madeji forcing the Ahujas to shift to safer ground. Many went to Sakhar, Shikarpur and towards Larkana, resulting in creation of different branches amongst Ahujas.

Those who went to Sakhar, their ancestor was Diwan Jethanand. 

 Some Ahujas from Sakhar migrated to Jacobabad viz: Diwan Kishindas.

 Those who migrated to Larkana, their ancestor was Diwan Khushiram. 

 The Ahuja’s have lived at Larkana for over a 100 years (1946). In the year 1915, more Ahujas from Madeji shifted to Larkana. Their forefather was Seth Khemchand whose son was Seth Panjandas.

 Amongst those Ahujas was Mr. Partabrai Vasomal Ahuja.  His son Mr. Ram was a Professor of Sindhi in the “Arts College” at Karachi and called himself Ram Panjwani, after his forefather’s name. Father Ahuja, son Panjwani! Many of their descendants therefore call themselves Panjwani. 

After partition in 1947, Prof. Ram Panjwani settled at Bombay and was a professor at Jai Hind College.

 The ancestor of Ahujas of Madeji was Seth Khemchand whose son was Seth Panjandas. Many of their descendants therefore call themselves Panjwani. 

 Some of the Ahujas are referred to as Diwan and some as Seth and there is a reason behind it.  Seth Panjandas’ son Seth Budhermal had two sons named Mr. Jaromal and Mr. Lachiram. Mr. Jaromal though a magician was also a Nawab in the Mir’s court. Hence he was called Diwan. Ahujas from ‘Garahi’ and ‘Seen’ considered themselves Diwan. Others are considered Bhaibunds even though their roots are the same.

 At Shikarpur, inside Lakhi Gate, is located ‘Bin Ji Haveli’, named after Seth Binmal Ahuja. His descendants are Seth Shivaldas Lekhraj, son of Seth Chimandas Bachumal, son of Seth Binmal.

 Ancestors of Seth Shivaldas Lekhraj, who were well to do, first migrated to Kachhi (Qalat) for the purpose of trading, and thereafter moved to Shikarpur. His maternal family had their roots connected with Diwan Jethmal (Jethmalani) who was the Governor of Shikarpur during the Mir reign. Seth Shivaldas was Justice of Peace, Member of Commissioner’s Court and member of Shikarpur College Board. He was Municipal counselor for fifteen years, in addition to being Honorary Magistrate of Shikarpur and Fazlaka (Punjab) and Chairman of Hon. Magistrate Bench. 

 Seth Shivaldas was Patron and Vice President of ‘The Boy Scout Association’. He was also a member of Shikarpur Education Society, Lady Dafren Hospital, Female Health Association, Sind & Punjab’s Indian Red Cross Society. Seth Shivaldas Lekhraj was life member of Punjab War League and member of Sakhar’s Central Co-operative Bank and held a Revolver License. He also was the first in Sind to establish a large Hosiery Mill at Shikarpur named ‘Shivaldas Knitting & Weaving Mills’. 

 Seth Shivaldas Ahuja’s son Rai Sahib Gokaldas was born at Shikarpur on 31st Oct. 1907. He passed Matric (O level) at Shikarpur High School. He was an active Boy Scout, and a good sportsman. He was Tennis secretary, Captain of Cricket Team, and Scoutmaster. In addition Rai Sahib Gokaldas was also Honorary Secretary of Boy Scout Association. Between 1927 and 1930, he founded ‘Shikarpur Scouts’ and ‘Sind Scouts’ with two Governors of Bombay its Patron.

 In 1930, Rai Sahib Gokaldas was called to Karachi by his father Seth Shivaldas to procure wheat and till 1946 he was in the same trade. Rai Sahib Gokaldas however continued to devote time to Scout movement. In the year 1933, he organized Sind Scout Jamboree. In the year 1938, he organized Sea Scouts Group Consel that was inaugurated on 15th April 1939 by Sind’s Governor Sir Lancet Graham. Rai Sahib Gokaldas was good swimmer and had rescued ten persons from drowning in the sea. He participated by joining Karachi Harbor Motor Boat Patrol and Royal Indian Naval Volunteer Reserve and in 1946 the British bestowed upon him the title of ‘Rai Sahib’. 

 Seth Shivaldas’ second son Seth Daulatram assisted his father to run his Hosiery Mill at Shikarpur. Seth Daulatram joined the Govt. run Hosiery Institute in Punjab and after completing his course he introduced new knitted products, that were to the British standards. However, in 1942, the Shikarpur unit closed down as Seth Daulatram shifted to Karachi and founded ‘The Standard Knitting Mills’.

 Seth Daulatram was a social worker and a Scout. During the 1939 riots at Sakhar and Shikarpur, Seth Daulatram mobilized his Boy Scout troops and guarded the streets of Shikarpur. The Government of Sind appreciated his efforts and awarded him with a Letter of Commendation and gave him Arms License to carry a Revolver and a Rifle that led to his going for Shikar (Hunting). 


AJWANI: – Diwan Ajumal.

 Nukh: – Manchanda.    

 Ajwanis lived at Kherpur Mir Sahib Wari. They are cousins of Bhavnani, Jagtiani and Gidwanis of Hyderabad. 

 Diwan Moolsingh Kherpuri had translated the Mahabharata into Sindhi. 

 The Author Diwan Bherumal M. Advani had seen the publication some 45 years prior to writing his two volumes that I am translating. Diwan Moolsingh, in his publication had written a Foreword giving an account of the Ajwanis. The same is reproduced below.

 The Foreword stated quote: “Our elders had come to Sind with Miya Adam Shah Kalhori. They were, during the Kalhori and Mirs reign, appointed to the Court as Diwans.

 A division took place amongst the Mirs. Mir Sahrab Khan chose Kherpur as his Capital. My grandfather Diwan Ajumal was appointed as Diwan of the Court. Diwan Ajumals cousins Bhavnanis, Jagtianis and Gidwanis were already with the Mir at Hyderabad as Diwans. Diwan Ajumal and his brother Diwan Kiranmal shifted their residence to Kherpur. Mir Sahib Mir Sahrab Khan whilst alive nominated Mir Sahib Mir Rustam Khan as his successor. As Diwan Ajumal’s son had lost his eyesight when he was young. His son, Diwan Dalpatrai, i.e. grandson of Diwan Ajumal was exalted to the Court. 

 My grandfather Diwan Amalrai, son of Diwan Chhatomal, was appointed Diwan to the court of Mir Mubarak Khan, who was brother of Mir Rustam Khan” 

 “As Diwan Dalpatrai had no children, he adopted his cousin Diwan Amalrai’s son, i.e. my father Jethanand, as his son who was appointed as Diwan to the Court of Mir Rustam Khan.

 On the day of the appointment, Mir Rustam Khan changed the name of my father to ‘Diwan Shersingh.       

 When the British took over Sind, my father Diwan Shersingh was appointed Daftardar (Registrar).

 Diwan Amalrai, my real grandfather was appointed Mukhtiarkar (Superior Revenue Officer). My other cousins were also appointed to senior posts. Barely 12 months passed when my father Diwan Shersingh expired. I was still young but the British Government saw to it that I got my legacy”. Unquote.

 Diwan Moolsingh later took to zamindari. He had four sons: Diwan Udhasingh, Diwan Shamsingh, Diwan Amarsingh and Diwan Nihalsingh. All were zamindars. Diwan Udhasingh’s son Diwan Jagatsingh zamindar expired prior to 1946 and his other son Diwan Gopalsingh, also a zamindar, lives at Shikarpur. 

 Diwan Amarsingh Moolsingh was born on Dec. 4th 1858 at Kherpur. 

 Diwan Amarsingh passed 5th grade and appeared for Second Grade Public Service Exam and passed out on Dec. 7th 1877. In 1878 he joined the Postal Department. 

 Later in the year 1880, he joined as a clerk in the Baluchistan Political Department. Besides Sindhi, English, he spoke Farsi and Pishtu.

 Diwan Amarsingh was promoted to the post of Head Clerk. In the year 1890 he was appointed Tasildar (Mukhtiarkar, Superior Revenue Officer). Later he became Deputy Collector to Baluchistan. He retired and took pension in the year 1914. Diwan Amarsingh served the British for 35 years and was Deputy Minister at Qalat. In the year 1914 he was awarded the title of ‘Rai Sahib.’

 After retirement Diwan Amarsingh looked after his farms at Shikarpur and was honorary chairman of the Bench Magistrates and member of Municipal, Local Board, Jail, and other committees. He was also Provincial Representative and received invitations from the Governor of Bombay and other high Officials. 

 At the Coronation of King George V, and George VI, he received Two Medals. Diwan Amarsingh expired on 13th March 1941 at Kherpur at the age of 83. 

 Diwan Amarsingh’s children: M/s. Hikmatsingh, Jyotsingh, Gulabsingh and Kundansingh. His two daughters were married. The elder one Shrimati Thakibai married Diwan Anandram Lachiram Wadhwani Advocate of Kherpur. The second daughter, till the year 1946, was still schooling. 

 Diwan Hikmatsingh was born at Kherpur on May 21st 1891. After passing Sindhi Final and Matric (O level) he joined, in the year 1914, Baluchistan Political Department as a clerk and later under went training with Punjab Settlement. He was promoted and appointed Deputy Tasildar (Revenue Officer) and later in 1934 promoted to the rank of Tasildar. Diwan Hikmatsingh worked in different capacities in Baluchistan and became Extra/additional Assistant Commissioner. He retired at the age of 55 and thereafter looked after his farms at Shikarpur. He spoke Farsi and Pishtu.

 Diwan Jyotsingh was a graduate of Bombay University. He was a sportsman and fond of Tennis. He had won many medals. Diwan Jyotsingh joined the Railways and became Gazette Officer. In 1946 he was awarded the title of ‘Rai Sahib’ and was Superintendent, Watch & Ward office with North Western Railways. 

 Diwan Gulabsingh Amarsingh joined the Veterinary Department. Later he went overseas to complete the course. In the year 1946 he was District Officer of Veterinary Department, Madras.

 Diwan Kundansingh, the fourth son, passed his Medical course at Hyderabad and later became Secretary Municipal Committee at Kherpur.

Diwan Ajumal’s second son Diwan Chhatomal (Chhatenmal) had six sons: M/s. Jamhitrai, Amalrai, Chellaram, Belaram, Relaram and Ghanshamdas.

 Mr. Shewasingh Harisingh, grandson of Diwan Ghanshamdas, was retired Postmaster. For a while he was editor of Sindvasi newspaper. He was also a writer and had written books ‘Kanshat’ and others. 

 Diwan Karanmal, brother of Diwan Ajumal, his descendants are called Ajwani. 

 From his roots: Diwan Vasanmal, Diwan Gurbuxsingh, Diwan Gurbuxsingh’s grandson: Professor Lalsingh son of Hazarisingh Ajwani and Mr. Ramchand Police Inspector.

 In the earlier volume written and published by Diwan Bherumal M. Advani on March 26 1919 titled “Amilan Jo Ahwal” (Information on Amils) that has been reprinted and published by Khudabadi Amil Panchayat, Mumbai 400 001, in 1989 gives Shijro (family tree) of Ajwani that is reproduced below:

 Diwan Adyomal Shewani sired M/s. Choithram and Sakharmal. Mr. Choithram sired M/s. Khatumal and Sabalmal. Mr. Khatumal sired M/s. Belomal and Bhavandas. Mr. Belomal sired Mr. Gidumal and others. With Diwan Gidumal started the Gidwani surname.

 Diwan Bhavandas was the founder of Bhavnani surname. Diwan Sabalmal was the founder of Sablani or Chhablani surname.

 Diwan Sabalmal sired M/s. Morakidas and Larhomal. Mr. Morakidas was the founder of Jagtiani surname. Mr. Larhomal sired Mr. Mesar who sired Mr. Ajumal who sired Mr. Sambhurai and others.

 Mr. Sambhurai sired Mr. Dalpatrai who sired Mr. Jethanand who sired Mr. Moolsingh Kherpuri. Thus started Ajwani surname. 

 Mr. Sakharmal sired Mr. Bakharmal who sired Mr. Matromal who sired Mr. Jagatrai. Thus started Jagtiani surname.

A note received in October 2006






























 ARORVANSHI: – Residents of Alor (Aror).

 Capital of the Rai and Brahmin rulers was Alor (Aror) situated two and a half miles from Rohiri. It is a small village now (1946). During the Arab invasion (711 AD) most of the people fled to escape their onslaught and later when an earthquake rocked Alor, the remaining people left. Their descendants lived at Bhawalpur, Shikarpur, and Rajputana and along the bank of the river in Punjab. 

 In 1946 their population was estimated at 15 Lacs. Most are worshippers of Guru Nanak and some are Arya Samaji, Brahmo Samaji and Dev Samaji. Prominent amongst them in 1946 were Lala Ramchand Manchanda Advocate, and Mr. Teckchand Bajaj Advocate of Multan Chief Court. Roots of Arorvanshi’s are spread in 458 families.

 Nukh: – The word ‘JA’ means ‘son of’. Jareja: meaning Son of Jare. Bathija, Talreja, Pohuja, Jasuja, Kukreja, Makhija, Dhameja, Valeja or Valechha and Hinduja are some examples. Their Nukh is the same as their surname.  

 Joneja, Jaheja, Chaneja, Deparja, Sinduja and Nareja of Sind are converted Muslims. They were Hindus earlier and had the same Nukh.

 The word ‘ANI’, ‘PAL’ and ‘AL’ also means son of. Example: – Ajmani, Jamani, Batani, Bhatani, Bhagtani, Gursiani, Hariani, Rajpal, Kathpal, Khatarpal, Nagpal, Thakral and Manjal.

 Other Arorvanshi surnames are Bajaj, Sachdev, Nagdev, Vasdev, and Manchanda.


 MATTA: – 

 Mattas are Arorvanshi. They came to Shikarpur from Punjab. In 1947, there were around twenty to twenty five families living there. Their forefathers dealt in wool, and in 1947 some of them were Shroffs (Bankers).

 SHIKARPURIS: – Hailing from Shikarpur.

Bhatias migrated to Sind from Jaisalmer, viz. Pherwani and Gajaria.  

 Some Bhatias are Brahm Khatris. Their ancestors came from Sonpar in Kutch, but many are Arorvanshi viz. Ahuja, Bajaj, Jamani (in Punjab they are called Ajmani), Chawla, Chhabria (Jethmalani in Shikarpur, Saghrani and Nagrani in Hyderabad), Rajpal, Khater, Gandhi, Lulla, and Matta. 

 The other Shikarpuri surnames viz. Bhag, Narewal, Chhaati, Rupahi and Bhagnari came from Qalat located about 30-40 miles away from Jacobabad.


AMBWANI: – Diwan Ambumal.

 Nukh: – Kukreja. 

 Bhagwanani, Keswani and Mulchandani have the same Nukh. They are all Arorvanshi.  

 Some Keswanis claim that in some battle, their ancestors ran short of ammunition and they used Kakar (Pebbles) instead. Hence the name Kukreja, i.e. Kakriwara.

Diwan Ambumal resided at Rawalpindi. He first moved to Multan and then to Rohiri. Later he shifted to Kherpur and worked with the Mirs. 

 Diwan Ambumal married twice. As both his wives were from Kandyari Taluka Hallani he shifted and lived there. All his children were born at Kherpur. 

 Diwan Ambumal was an honest man. The Mir had put him in charge of the Grain warehouse (Modikhano – Modi i.e. grain merchant). His sons, Diwan Sawaldas and Diwan Bazarimal were Kardar (Service/Revenue Officer) with the Mirs.

 The Mir heard that Diwan Bazarimal had embezzled some fifty Thousand rupees by manipulating the accounts and had shown it as shikar expence and gold chains for the Mir’s pet dogs.  

 Diwan Bazarimal was arrested and put behind bars. Mir had full trust in Diwan Ambumal, and he was asked to investigate and audit the accounts. 

 Diwan Ambumal found his son Diwan Bazarimal guilty and informed the Mir accordingly.

 The Mir appreciated the integrity of Diwan Ambumal and granted pardon to Diwan Bazarimal and re-employed him. The Mir praised Diwan Ambumal for his honesty and bestowed upon him a Tarkashi Lungi (cloth embroidered with gold and silver zari). Later it became customary in Ambwanis to tie this Tarkashi Lungi to the Groom at the time of marriage as sign of good luck. 

 Diwan Dayaram Chapjandas Ambwani, who in the year 1946 was 30 years old, narrated to Diwan Bherumal Mahirchand Advani that: “When I got married I had worn that Lungi around my waist. Later, due to its age the Lungi shredded in to pieces, the Zari was sold for twenty four rupees”.

 Diwan Ambumal had one daughter and eight sons. Three sons: M/s. Bazarimal, Seoomal and Bharoomal expired and had no children. M/s. Sawaldas, Dharamdas, Waparimal, Moryomal and Athhomal lived at Hallani with their wives and children. 

 Diwan Sawaldas sired Diwn Verhomal who sired Diwan Narumal. Diwan Narumal’s son Diwan Bhojraj was born in the year 1880 and expired in 1915. Diwan Bhojraj sired Mr. Jhamatmal who was in the year 1946 Inspector of Registration at Hyderabad. Mr. Jhamatmal sired Dr. Gobindram who passed his L.C.P.& S (Bombay) exam and came first.

 Diwan Bhojraj’s second son was Mr. Roopchand. He was in the year 1946, Superintendent with Director of Civil Supplies at Karachi.

 Diwan Moryomal sired Diwan Rochiram zamindar.

 From the same Ambwani family tree: Diwan Shokatrai Khubchand zamindar and Diwan Wasoomal Dharamdas, the Sant (Saint-Holy man).



 Nukh: – Nagdev. 

 Many Batani families were in the year 1946 living in Punjab. They are considered Arorvanshi. Sipahmalanis of Hyderabad have the same Nukh. 

 Diwan Batasingh was born around the year 1715. He lived at ‘Kan Kabaj’ which is pronounced as ‘Kanoj’ but some pronounce it as ‘Kkanoj’. The correct pronunciation is ‘Kanoj’. It was during the Kalhora reign that Diwan Batasingh was appointed to the post of Diwan and expired in the year 1778.

 Diwan Batasingh’s son Diwan Tejsingh was born in the year 1739 and lived in Multan. After the Mir appointed him as Diwan to their court, he shifted to Saywan. His son Diwan Fatehsingh was born in the year 1760. 

 Diwan Fatehsingh shifted to Hyderabad on his being appointed as Diwan to the court of the Mirs and lived at Khaatu Bandan Ghitti. Many of his relatives also shifted to Hyderabad in search of employment and lived nearby to his house. The Ghitti (street) was named  ‘Saywahniyun Jo Paro’ (Sehwani Paro). In 1946, some Batanis left this Paro and shifted to Hyderabad’s west Katcha. Some Batanis were also at Karachi and some at Saywan. Even though Hyderabadi Batanis are born at Hyderabad but they are still called Sehwani, the place of their origin. 

 Diwan Fatehsingh expired in the year 1829. 

 The present Batanis (1946) are descendants of Diwan Fatehsingh’s two sons i.e. Diwan Ajaibrai (1780 – 1841) and Diwan Moolsingh (1788 – 1841). 

 Diwan Ajaibrai was a Diwan in the Mir’s Court. He had three sons: Diwan Kiratrai, Roopsingh and Karamsingh.

 Diwan Kiratrai 1801 – 1852) was a Kardar (in service). His children: Diwan Tharoomal and others.

 Diwan Roopsingh was born in the year 1825. In 1859 he became Mukhtiarkar (Superior Revenue Officer) and expired in the year 1887. 

 Diwan Roopsingh’s 3 sons: M/s. Moolsingh, Hirasingh and Kansingh.

 A)    Diwan Moolsingh (1851 – 1890) was Head Munshi with Hyderabad Police District Superintendent. 

 B)    Diwan Hirasingh was born in the year 1866. He was Head Munshi of Deputy Collector of Nara Vaeli (Tharparkar) and expired in the year 1906. He had three sons. 

 The eldest son: Mr. Hassasingh was born in 1887. At first he was with Revenue Department at Tharparkar. Later he joined Salt & Excise Dept. as a clerk and ended up being Excise Inspector. In the year 1934 he retired and took pension. In 1946 he was President of Sehwani General Panchayat at Hyderabad. He had seven sons but only four were living in 1946. 

 Mr. Hassasingh’s son Mr. Ramsingh was born at Hyderabad in the year 1910. He studied at Nav Vidyalaya Hyderabad and at Govt. High School at Karachi before joining Hyderabad College. In July 1937, he became Registered Accountant. (C.A.). He opened an office at Karachi and worked as an Auditor and Tax consultant.

 Mr. Hassasingh’s second son: Mr. Narainsingh was born in 1916. He worked with Hyderabad Electric Company.

 Mr. Hassasingh’s third son: Mr. Partab was born in 1925. He was doing his BA in 1946.

 Mr. Hassasingh’s fourth son: Mr. Ratan born in 1930. In 1946 he was still studying. 

 C)    Diwan Kansingh (1840 – 1886). He was Head Munshi of Deputy Commissioner (Collector in 1946) Tharparkar District.

 Diwan Kansingh’s son: Diwan Shyamsingh  (1869 – 1928) was a Supervising Tapdar (Revenue Officer). He had 3 sons: M/s. Kishinsingh, Sadhusingh and Nihalchand.

 Mr. Kishinsingh  (1885 – 1922) was Chief Goods Clerk at Hyderabad. His 2 sons: Mr. Bhagwandas and Mr. Lachmandas were with Controller’s office and the third son Mr. Ramchand, a First Class Gazette officer, was the Assistant Secretary with Comptroller’s Office.         

 Mr. Shyamsingh’s son Mr. Sadhusingh was born in the year 1889 at Hyderabad. At first he worked with Revenue Dept. at Tharparkar, and also with Mirpur Khas Municipality as Chief Officer. Later he was appointed Excise Inspector. In the year 1940, while conducting a raid he collapsed on the road and expired. 

 Mr. Sadhusingh had two sons: Mr. Sahibsingh and Mr. Kartarsingh. In the year 1946, Mr. Sahibsingh had passed his B. A. while Mr. Kartarsingh was in the Engineering College.

 Mr. Nihalchand Shyamsingh in the year 1894 was born at Hyderabad. For a while he was Secretary of Mirpur Khas Municipality and later joined Excise Dept. as Clerk. In 1946 he was Excise Inspector.

 Diwan Karamsingh Ajaibsingh’s one son, Diwan Santsingh was an Officer of Civil Court Hyderabad, and the other son Diwan Lakhasingh was an Inspector with Hyderabad Police. 

 Diwan Lakhasingh sired Rai Sahib Diwan Joharsingh, who sired Diwan Gurmukhsingh who was a Executive Engineer.


BATANI-2. The other family: – 

 Diwan Moolsingh Fatehsingh: His sons: Diwan Atmaram, Diwan Lilaram and Diwan Assaram and their families. 

 From Diwan Assaram’s roots: Diwan Balchand Roopchand. He was born in the year 1865. He was a Head Clerk with the Chief Engineer Sind and expired in the year 1920. He had two sons: Mr. Narain (Suratram) and Mr. Bhagwandas (Income Tax Officer). 

 Mr. Narain (Suratram) Balchand Batani was born in the year 1883. In the year 1900, he came first in Matriculation (O level) exam in entire Sind and second in the University. In 1906 he passed his Master of Arts degree in First Class and won many Medals and prizes. He was in the year 1907 appointed as Assistant Professor of Physics and later as Professor at Karachi College was. In the Year 1916 he was appointed as Vice Principal. In 1927 he succeeded Principal Shahani.     

    Principal Narain was a Fellow of Bombay University, Chairman of Sind Board of Studies, Member of Physic & Mathematics Board and Academic Council & Syndicate. He was the first Sindhi to become ‘Syndic’. He retired from the Principal-ship at the age of sixty. In the year 1946 he was the Head of Science Dept. at Madersy College Karachi. He was a Sufi. 

  The second from Diwan Assaram’s roots: Diwan Chanrai Kilachand  (1874 – 1915). He had five sons.

 A)    Diwan Shokatrai. His sons: Diwan Chanchaldas Advocate, and Diwan  


 Diwan Lachiram’s sons: Professor Hariram of Hyderabad College, Mr. Motilal Advocate and others. 

 B)    Diwan Mayaram. He was a Mukhtiarkar (Superior Revenue Officer) at  Quetta.

 C) Diwan Udharam, Assistant Engineer.         

 D)   Diwan Dalpatrai, renowned Advocate of Saywan.

 E)    Mr. Panjoomal. He expired in the year 1940.

 Dating back to seventeenth and eighteenth century, Diwan Jeeanmal sired Diwan Vasanmal. Diwan Vasanmal left behind four sons: Diwan Menghraj, Diwan Fatehchand, Diwan Bulchand and Diwan Jhamatmal. 

 Diwan Menghraj sired Diwan Keshavdas and four daughters. 

 Diwan Keshavdas was born at Hyderabad (Sehwani Paro) in the year 1885. He studied at Sadhu Hiranand Academy upto the Seventh grade English and in 1901 without passing Matric (O level) he joined the Railways at Karachi as a clerk at a salary of Rs. 22/-. He expanded his English knowledge privately outside the school and with sheer hard work reached the post of Head Clerk of District Traffic Superintendent. He received a salary of Rs. 180/-. After thirty-six years of service he retired in the year 1937. He expired on April 11th 1940.

 Diwan Keshavdas married the daughter of Diwan Tilokchand Israni of Larkana. His son Dhamo (Dharamdas) was born at Mehar on Feb. 1st 1923 and studied at Karachi. He passed F.S.C. in 1939. Later he passed B.Sc. (Agriculture) from Poona Agriculture College. Till 1944, Mr. Dharamdas was the Agriculture Overseer of the District at Larkana. He married in the year 1944 at Larkana and sired a son. Mr. Dharamdas then rejoined Poona Agriculture College (Entomological Section) to do his M.Sc. (Entomological). 


BHAMBHANI: – Mr. Bhambhumal & KARNANI: – Mr. Karanmal.

Nukh: – Chhug.

 Chandiramani, Shinghwani, Kirpalani and Manglani belong to the same Nukh. Many Chhugs from Laar and Punjab are called Lohana.

 Bhambhani’s are from Pad-Eedan. Their ancestors hailed from Hassan-Abdal near Rawalpindi. Due to some misunderstanding between Hindus and Muslims, they, along with Ambwani, Keswani and Mulchandanis migrated to Multan. After some time they moved to Rohiri and finally settled at Kherpur. 

 Growth of Pad-Eedan (Idan): – During the Mirs reign, ancestor of Bhambhani Diwan Naraindas, a zamindar of Hingorjan, married daughter of Diwan Idanmal Hingorani. It is said that a property dispute took place amongst Diwan Naraindas and his brothers and to get away from it he convinced his father in-law to shift with him to some other place so that he would not see their faces again. 

 Diwan Idanmal was an influential man and to please his son-in-law he, along with Diwan Naraindas moved to district Navsheri Firoz. There, one and half miles away from village Chehi, he selected a site to settle at. Vadero (Chief – Mukhi) Fateh Khan was the head of village Chehi. He was Rajpar by caste and a powerful and influential zamindar.

 Vadero Fateh Khan had over one lac Rajpars (caste) under him. He was known for his generosity and good heart. If a person sought asylum or his protection, Vadero would protect him with his life. Diwan Idanmal, under his protection, built his village and invited other Hindus to settle and built houses for them. The village came to be called Pad-Eedan or Idan (Idanmal). Pad, meaning isolated.

  Diwan Bherumal M. Advani writes in his volume that between the years 1915 to 1918, when he was an Excise Inspector at Navsheri division, he had an opportunity to visit Pad-Eedan. The Vadero then was the grandson of Fateh Khan also named Fateh Khan. He, like his grandfather, lived with Hindus in harmony, following the footsteps of his grandfather.  

 Diwan Idanmal not only built houses and gardens but cultivated the land as well. After settling his son-in-law Diwan Naraindas at Pad-Eedan, he returned to Hingorjan.

 It is believed that in those days a canal passed through Pad Eadan. A few years prior to 1946, while excavating the ground, numerous Wells were found.

 In around 1946, zamindars did not have to dig deep to find water. Around eight to nine wells were found in the area around Pad Eedan.

 Hyderabad got connected to Rohiri by train in the year 1899. The line passed Pad-Eedan half a mile short of it. Pad Eadan Railway Station was converted into Junction in the year 1922.

 Diwan Idanmal’s son-in-law Diwan Naraindas also left Pad-Eedan and shifted to Hyderabad and Karachi. Diwan Naraindas had five sons: – M/s. Karanmal, Motumal, Raimal, Gharyomal and Khiyatomal.

 Diwan Karanmal had four sons: – M/s. Wadhusingh, Jameatrai, Atmaram, and Bhambhumal.

 The descendants of Diwan Karanmal, who were residing at Pad-Eedan, called themselves Karnani viz. Diwan Parumal Badaldas and others.

 The other descendants called themselves Bhambhani, after the name of Diwan Bhambhumal. In fact Karnani and Bhambhanis are one family.

 Diwan Bhambhumal had nine sons, but the author Diwan Bherumal had met only one son i.e. Diwan Madansingh who in the year 1917 was eighty-five or eighty six years old. The other eight sons had expired prior to that leaving behind their families.

 Diwan Bhambhumal’s son Diwan Ramsingh was Minister of Center of Affairs. His son Diwan Mansingh was a respected zamindar. He was brave, well-built and a courageous man. Mischief and troublemakers kept their distance from him. He was very helpful to all and even the British officers sought his help. He was awarded the title of ‘Rai Sahib’ for his services to mankind. He had a license to possess Rifle and a sword.

 Diwan Mansingh was a Special Magistrate of Navsheri Firoz. Disputes or misunderstandings between Hindus or Muslims were referred to him for settlement. His fair and just awards or decisions were acceptable to all. He expired at the age of seventy on Feb. 28 1942.

  Diwan Mansingh’s son: – Mr. Lilaram, Mr. Bhojraj and Mr. Uttamchand. Mr. Lilaram and Mr. Uttamchand were zamindars.

 Mr. Bhojraj passed B.Sc. Civil Engineering from Edinburg University. He worked for a year with Great Western & London North Eastern Railways. On his return to India in the year 1922, he was appointed Asst. Engineer with the East India Railway Company. In 1938, he was promoted to the rank of executive Engineer.

 In 1942, he was Captain of Defense of India Units. He was elevated to rank of Lt. Colonel and received ‘Star of Defense of India’ and ‘Star of Burma’ medals.

 Mr. Bhojraj’s son, Mr. Jashanmal had passed his BA.

 Diwan Naraindas’ grandson, Diwan Badaldas Jameatrai was a Diwan with the Yaam of Las Bela and spent more time in Karachi and had an affinity with the Bhojwanis of Karachi. Some Diwans of Pad-Eedan were married to the Bhojwani daughters.

 Some Bhambhanis were zamindars and some Thhekedars (Contractors) and some in service. They were not inclined to study and many did not know English. The first to graduate amongst them was Mr. Mulchand Sakhramdas who passed his MA. He was a professor at Patna and expired at young age. In the year 1946, there were around thirty graduates and double graduates in Pad-Eedan.

Interesting notes from the great grand-son of Sardar Fateh Khan Rajpar mentioned above (Dec 2004)

I read the history of Padeidan,where I live in village Cheeho. I am the great grand son of Sardar Fateh Khan Rajpar mentioned in your chapter  Bhambhanis,and today rajpers in Sindh have population of nearly 2 million

I think that it is not impossible for you to find out more information regarding this tribe and the place Cheehi, now Cheeho (it is said that they were originally Rajputs from Jaisalmir and children of Raja Rajpal) there are places with the name Rajpar and caste in India, I guess

If you can help me out, it will be a great asset to me and my people.


Mansoor Ali Rajper


 Dear Mansoor,

Adding your note. Please look it up.

It has not been updated yet. Is this ok with you?





















TOLANI 1) (Hyderabad): – Diwan Tolaram Shewakram.


Tolanis are originally Arorvanshi. During the Arab invasion their ancestors left Aror (Alwar) and migrated to Punjab. Later they returned to settle first at Chandka District Larkana, and then at Hyderabad. Families with same Nukh were living in Punjab and Karachi (1946).

Diwan Tolaram had five sons: M/s. Motiram, Panjumal, Hiranand, Pahlajrai and Mahirchand.

Diwan Hiranand’s son: Diwan Chanrai. The ‘Chanani’ of Hyderabad are his descendants.

Only Diwan Maharchand and his descendants identified themselves as ‘Tolani’, while others call themselves ‘Chanani’.

Diwan Mahirchand had three sons: M/s. Khiomal, Karanmal and Tarachand.

Diwan Khiomal’s son Diwan Devanmal had expired and had no children.

Diwan Karanmal had three sons: M/s. Ramchand, Kismatrai and Murjmal.

Prominent amongst the Tolani was Diwan Kismatrai who expired on Dec. 28 1890. He had three sons: M/s. Fatehchand, Pritamdas and Nihalchand.

Diwan Pritamdas Kismatrai Tolani was with Sind Education Dept. He had, in 1946, one son, Mr. Gokaldas who was working with the Karachi Port Trust.

Diwan Nihalchand was born on Sept. 6 1867 and was with Public Works Dept. He retired as Head Clerk and expired on Dec. 13 1942. He had three sons: M/s. Motumal, Jiwatram and Tarachand.

Mr. Motumal was born on Aug. 21 1890. He was the first amongst Tolanis to pass MA from Cambridge University. In 1946 he was Principal of Bikaneer College.

Diwan Nihalchand’s second son was Dr. Jiwatram. He was born on Jan. 2 1900, and passed his M.B.B.S. from Bombay. In 1946 he was at Karachi and was connected with ‘Jodhasingh Basantsingh Memorial Dispensary’ as Honorary Medical Officer.

Mr. Tarachand, the third son of Diwan Nihalchand, was born on Sept. 12 1907. He passed his BA (Mechanical) from Bombay and Electrical Engineering from Bangalore. In 1946, he was Professor at the Poona Engineering College.   


TOLANI 2) (Larkana): – 

Nukh: – Dhamecha.

They are also Arorvanshi. During the Arab invasion their ancestors left Aror (Alwar) and migrated to Punjab. Later they returned and settled at Larkana.

Their forefather was Diwan Abhoromal. His son: – Diwan Sajanmal. Diwan Sajanmal sired Diwan Dhanrajmal who sired Diwan Tolaram.

Diwan Madanlal son of Diwan Tolaram had two sons: M/s. Manghomal and Juryomal. Diwan Manghomal sired Diwan Awatrai. Diwan Awatrai sired Diwan Sakhawatrai sired Diwan Pribhdas. Diwan Pribhdas was President of Larkana Municipality. A municipal school had been named after him.

It was Diwan Juryomal Madanlal’s grandson Mr. Gurdinomal Uttamchand who was one of the founder members of Larkana’s Arya Samaj’s ‘Sangh Sabha’ and ‘Sudhar Sabha’. A Girls School functioned under the auspicious of ‘Sudhar Sabha’ that was managed by Diwan Gurdinomal.


TOLANI 3) (Tando Mohd. Khan): – Seth Tolaram Vareldas.

Nukh: – Sapra.

Seth Tolaram Vareldas was son of Seth Nebhrajmal. He hailed from Punjab. In the days of Guru Tej Bahadur, to escape the atrocities committed by the Muslims against the Hindus, Seth Tolaram left Punjab for Sind and camped at village Khatyan. Later he went to village Khokhran near Tando Alhyar. Around the same time, other Hindu Punjabis also migrated to Sind. They all were called Sindhi Panjabis. At Khokhran, a Sindhi school came up in 1865. The Sindhi Panjabis marry within their community.

In 1947, Tolanis were living around Tando Gulam Ali, Tando Mohd. Khan and other places. Tolani’s were traders, zamindars and some were in service.  


Nukh: Why Sapra?

 It is said that about 5 to 6 generations ago Seth Tolaram’s wife delivered a baby boy and a snake. They looked after and cared for the snake like their own child. One day Seth Tolaram had a visitor at home. The visitor seeing a snake in baby’s cradle got frightened and killed it. The snake died but so did the baby. The word Supra meaning snake wara (Saanp, Naang), has stuck to them ever since. Families with same Nukh were also found in Multan.


 TEJSINGHANI: – Bhai Tej Singh.

 Nukh: – Sapra.

 They are Sindhi Panjabi and had migrated from Punjab.

In 1947, they lived at Hyderabad. They are called Tejsinghani after their grand father Bhai Tej Singh. Near Hyderabad Qilo (Fort) Mr. Dharma son of Bhai Tej Singh, had a wine shop.  



There were two Thadani surnames in Hyderabad.

1) Thadanis of Gosain Ghitti


 2) Thadanis of Nihayun Jo Paro (look after the ‘Gehani’ surname on this page)

 THADANI: – of Gosain Ghitti. Diwan Thadomal Jethmal.

 Nukh: – Bhagia.

Bhagio means Bhaag, Lucky, Rich, and or Moneyed. These Thadani’s have their roots linked to Parmar Sodha Rajputs and had migrated from Jaisalmer where they were called ‘Jasraj Pota’ and were/are worshippers of the ‘Devi Mata’ and believe in their Guru ‘Gosain’. Before commencing any festivity, they performed a ‘Propitiating Ceremony’. They sacrificed a Goat to the ‘Devi Mata’. However in Sind they made a replica of a Goat out of ‘Atta’ (flour). This system is not followed by any other Amils.

Thadani elders has come to Sind accompanied by their Guru ‘Gosain Niranjan Gur’ during the Kalhora reign.

Around the same time other Hindus Rajput Khatris from Surayavanshi family led by Sawai Lalo Jasraj, also came to Sind accompanied by their Guru ‘Sawai  Sahibjin’. A railway station ‘Kot Lalo Station, near Pad-Eedan, District Navsheri Firoz, is named after him.

Mr. Motiram was Mr. Thadomal Jethmal’s grandfather.

Mr. Motiram sired five sons: M/s. Jethmal, Jagatrai, Khubchand, Tawarnmal and Hardaram.

Mr. Jethmal Motiram sired four sons: M/s. Thadomal, Baharmal, Gehimal, and Kiyandas.  



Mr. Gehimal Jethmal’s descendants lived at Tilty. The remaining brothers M/s. Thadomal, Baharmal and Kiyandas along with their Guru Gosain Harnam Gur went to Hyderabad and set up their Darbar. Gosain’s chelo (follower and heir to the seat) was Gosain Surajgar and Gosain Wari Ghitti near Seray Ghat  was named after him.

Gosain Harnam Gur was a gifted man. The Mir after seeing his powers gifted him land for his Darbar. The area around Gosain Wari Ghitti, near Seray Ghat was a grove. The Thadanis got the place cleared and constructed their houses near the Darbar. In 1946, some Thadanis still lived there while some had shifted to Hirabad and some to Karachi.

Diwan Thadomal Jethmal’s first son was Diwan Ailmal. Diwan Ailmal’s son was Diwan Gulabrai. From his roots came Mr. Metharam Watanmal and others.

From Diwan Ailmal’s second son Mr. Phoolchand, came the roots of Mr. Chetanram Bhavandas Mukhtiarkar (Senior Revenue Officer) and others.

Diwan Baharmal had one son Diwan Tarachand who was an Ambassador of Mir to Afghanistan. Diwan Tarachand son: Diwan Mulchand and his son Mr. Menghraj. Diwan Menghraj had two sons: Diwan Hassomal and Diwan Varomal.

Diwan Hassomal’s roots: Mr. Tawnarmal Salamatrai, son of Mr. Tulsidas Hassomal.

Diwan Varomal’s roots: His son Mr. Assudomal. He was with the Superintendent Land Records and Agriculture office. Mr. Assudomal had three sons: M/s. Lekhraj, Lilaram and Rewachand. Diwan Rewachand Assudomal was born at Gosain Wari Ghitti, Hyderabad.  

Amils were generally dependent on service/employment for livelihood. But with time their thinking changed and some ventured out to trade. Diwan Rewachand joined his brother Mr. Lilaram. His four sons were M/s. Kishinchand, Arjan, Moti and Gulab. Mr. Kishinchand also ventured out to trade. His brothers, in 1946, were still schooling.

From the same family: – Diwan Baharmal’s grandson, Diwan Majlisrai Tarachand. He was the only one from Thadani family to be born at Hyderabad. All others were born at Khudabad and Tilty.

Diwan Majlisrai was a Diwan (minister) in the court of Mir at Tando Mohd. Khan. He had received property rights from the Mir.

Diwan Bherumal, the Author writes that one-day while travelling to Hyderabad on a horseback, Diwan Majlisrai was attacked by dacoits. He fought and defended himself with his sword but in the scuffle he was injured. He managed to remount his horse and grab the reins and fainted. The horse managed to find its way to his house at Hyderabad.

Diwan Majlisrai was a brave, courageous and big-hearted man. He helped all those who were in need. But there were also those who envied him. Once a Hindu clerk, out of jealousy sent some people to trash Diwan Majlasrai. In the brawl Diwan Majlisrai hurt his arm. Friends of Diwan Majlasrai were of ‘Chang’ tribe and could not tolerate this. They vowed to take revenge. The Hindu clerk, on learning this sought refuge with Gosain who asked Diwan Majlasrai to forgive him.

Diwan Majlasrai’s eldest son Diwan Jeomal was born in the year 1800. His maternal grandfather (Nana) was Munshi Valiram Advani. On one occasion, during a battle that was being fought between the Talpars and some Sardars (Chiefs) near Oord, Diwan Jeomal braved out and went to visit his Nana Munshi Valiram. The Nana reprimanded Diwan Jeomal on risking his life to visit him and got him appointed as a Khazanchi (Cashier).

Soon Diwan Jeomal was appointed as Kardar (Revenue Officer) and his jurisdiction extended to Tando Gulam Hyder and other areas. He invested in land and retired as a zamindar. Diwan Jeomal’s eyesight stared to fail and he realized that the farmers were cheating him out of his share, but did nothing to prevent it. He believed in the saying that ‘the Garden is always green and the Cow always hungry’. (Bani sai ji saiyee, Gaeen {Cow} Bukhye jee Bukhyee).

 While still alive, Diwan Jeomal bequeathed his land to his son Mr. Issardas and spent his time doing Bhakti. He expired in the year 1875.

Diwan Issardas, son of Diwan Jeomal was born in August 1854. After his father’s death he looked after his farms and maintained a very cordial relationship with his neighboring zamindars, some of who were Muslims. He expired on April 17 1907 at the age of 53 years.

Mr. Rijhumal, son of Diwan Issardas, was born on Feb. 1877. After passing his BA in 1898 and LL.B. in Dec. 1901, he practiced Law at Hyderabad. He was a Sub. Judge at Mehar in 1906 and from March 1907, for a period of five and a half years, was Resident Magistrate at Mirpur Khas, Sajawal, Dadoo, and Jacobabad. In the year 1912, Diwan Issardas left the service and again practiced Law at Larkana. He stayed at Larkana for twenty-five years, when his eyesight failed, he moved to Hyderabad.

Mr. Rijhumal had studied Sanskrit as second language in College. This helped him to do research on Sindhi language and Philosophy. He was a vivid writer and had contributed his work to Karachi College’s magazine the ‘Young Lawyer’, ‘Bombay Law Reporter’ and to ‘All India Reporter’. He also wrote on ‘Hindu Law’.

A bill was presented to ‘Hind Assembly’ suggesting that the period of Seven generations (Peeri) for inter marriages between same family or close relatives be reduced to Four generations. This bill was opposed by Mr. Rijhumal Issardas.

Mr. Rijhumal was member of ‘Hindu Sabha’ working committee and Khudabadi Amil Panchayat’s working committee. He was Director of Khudabadi Amil Agricultural Bank.

Mr. Rijhumal Issardas had three sons: – M/s. Motiram, Mangharam and Tikam.

Mr. Motiram Rijhumal was born on Oct. 13 1915. For higher studies he went to the United States of America where he passed his M.Sc. (Economics Mix), and M.Sc. (Agricultural & Economics Mix). He passed with a First class and was appointed Lecturer of Agriculture & Economics at Texas University. Mr. Motiram did his Ph.D. and got his Doctorate. Due to the forthcoming Second World War, Dr. Motiram returned to India in 1941 and joined ‘Govt. Supply Dept’ at Delhi as Asst. Controller of Purchases.

Dr. Motiram then moved to ‘Govt. Food Department’.  In 1946, he was Director of Purchases, drawing a monthly salary of Rs. 1,000.00.

Mr. Mangharam, the second son, was doing his Inter Science in 1946 and was fond of taking part in dramas.

Mr. Tikam, the third son of Mr. Rijhumal, was in the year 1946, seventeen years old, and doing his Inter Commerce. He was fond of movies and wrote articles for ‘Film News’ magazine and was hon. secretary of the ‘Film World’ magazine.

Diwan Issardas’ second son: – Diwan Khubchand. He was born in August 1888 and studied at Poona Agricultural College. He obtained his BA (Agriculture) Degree from Bombay University. He worked as Head Master at Agricultural School at Mirpur Khas. Later he was appointed as Sind’s ‘Cotton planter’.

The Government of Bombay enrolled Diwan Khubchand’s name in the ‘Provincial Agricultural Service’ and sent him to United States for further research. His hard work got him recognized and was honored “Fellow of Lineann Society” of London and “Fellow of Royal Horticulture Society” London. While in United States, Diwan Khubchand wrote thesis on his research.

On Diwan Khubchand’s return he joined ‘Agricultural Research Station’ at Sakarand in Sind and later became its Director. He was also appointed as Botanist in Sind. His salary grade was Rs. 550/- to Rs. 1250/- and he drew Rs. 1250/- per month.

Prior to Sind separating in 1936, Sind’s Agricultural Dept. had already been separated from Bombay. A Briton headed the Institute. Later the Briton left for Bombay to head the Bombay Institute and at his recommendation Diwan Khubchand was appointed as Acting Director. On Sind’s separation from Bombay, a selection committee was formed that chose Diwan Khubchand as its Director. He held the post for seven years and drew a salary of Rs. 1500/- till his retirement in that year 1944.        

While in service Diwan Khubchand passed his MA (Agriculture) from Bombay University. The Government recognized him by awarding the tittle of ‘Rai Sahib’ and later title of ‘Rai Bahadur’. Rai Bahadur Diwan Khubchand wrote and shared his research work by contributing it to many journals in India and United States. He also wrote an article on the Budhho’s (Toothless) surname and family.

Rai Bahadur Diwan Khubchand’s son Mr. Nirmaldas passed his B.Sc. from Bombay University and B.Sc. (Electrical Engineering) from Manchester University. On his return he joined Govt. Supply Dept. and in the year 1946, he was Deputy Director of Supplies.

Diwan Issardas’ third son Mr. Tanwardas was born in Nov. 1890. He passed his B.A. in second class and attained First class in English and Farsi. In the First year LL.B. he came First Class First from Bombay University. After passing Second year LL.B., he practiced Law at Larkana and Karachi. Mr. Tanwardas was appointed as an Honorary Professor and later became Vice Principal of Karachi Law College. In 1946, he was Official Editor of a journal called the ‘Young Lawyer’.

All the above mentioned, are from the roots of Diwan Baharmal, son of Diwan Jethmal Motiram. There are more descendants from the same roots and prominent amongst them: – Rai Bahadur Diwan Khubchand Issardas Thadani, Director of Agriculture.

From Diwan Motiram’s other son Diwan Jagatrai’s family: Diwan Gopaldas Tharoomal Thadani, Director of Supplies.

From the same roots: – Mr. Lekhraj Tilokchand, who in Oct. 1896 published Hyderabad’s ‘Parbhat’ weekly. After him his son Mr. Gopaldas continued as publisher.  Master Tarachand was also from same roots.

From Diwan Motiram’s third son Diwan Khubchand’s family roots: Rai Bahadur Diwan Bulchand Thadani, Superintendent of Land Records and Agriculture.

From Diwan Motiram’s fourth son Diwan Tanwarmal’s family roots: Justice Thadani and his brother Diwan Nanikram, Principal, Hindu College Delhi. Their brother late Mr. Rewachand Vasanmal was a prominent Advocate at Karachi. From the same family roots: Mr. Jodharam Notansingh and others.  


 THADANI: – of Nihayun Jo Par.

Nukh: Khan-Ghar.

Families with same Nukh live in Punjab also and are called Arorvanshi.

Around two hundred fifty years ago four brothers, M/s. Thadomal, Shivdas, Devandas and Mansukhdas lived in Multan. A tribal savage community looted and terrorized the area. The brothers were close to a Brahmin Mahraj Harkishindas who had relatives living in Sind. He advised them leave and move to Sind. The four brothers along with the Brahmin walked their way to Shikarpur and camped near Hathi Gate.

Not satisfied with the income earned, they moved to Sahiti district. After earning some more money they then shifted to Saywan. On the way they came across Gosain Niranjan Gur who was in deep in meditation. Mahraj Harkishindas noticed a snake making its way to Gosain Niranjan Gur. He, Mahraj Harkishindas, picked up a stone and killed the snake. Gosain Niranjan Gur thanked all of them for saving his life and invited them to stay at his Ashram (Marhi) where they all spent some time.

The brothers and Mahraj Harkishindas then left for Manjhand where a cousin of the Mahraj stayed. They spent some more time there and moved again to Hyderabad. Enroute on the road to Gidhu Bunder, they were confronted by dacoits who rid them of their money and belongings. In the scuffle they were injured. Their cries attracted persons nearby who brought them to the Ashram of Gosain Niranjan (Gosain Ghitti) for treatment.

At the recommendation of Gosain, the four brothers started working for the Mir. The Mir allotted them land near the Ashram where they constructed their houses, got married and settled permanently.

Diwan Thadomal then shifted to Nihayun Jo Pir while Shivdas (Shivdasani) and his family remained at Gosain Ghitti that had Shivdasani Ghitti in it.

From Devandas’ family roots: Diwan Choithram Daftardar’s (Revenue Officer) family. Professor Ghansham Jethanand was, in the year 1946, a member of Sind Legislative Assembly.  Actually they are Devanmalani, but prefer to call them-selves Shivdasani.

Diwan Mansukhdas and his family shifted a short distance away. The street was called Mansukhani Ghitti near Chandiramani Ghitti.

Mahraj Harkishindas, who had accompanied the four brothers, stayed on at the Ashram (Marhi) for a while. Having advanced his knowledge, his followership  (Jajmans) grew. His children: Mahraj Lokram Nainaram, and Mahraj Vishnu Sharma.

From these Thadani’s merged Diwan Wadhumal Gangaram Judge, Diwan Hassomal zamindar, Rai Bahadur Diwan Hotchand Chandumal, Diwan Ailmal and others. 


 KEWALRAMANI: – Sawai Bhai Kewalram.

Kewalramani’s hailing from Bhareen/Bhargareen, District Navsheri Firoz, have their links connected with the Brother of Guru Sawai Sahibjin Bhai Kewalram.

Diwan Bherumal M. Advani writes in his journal that he learnt from a document (Conveyance Deed) written in Persian (Farsi) that Sawai Tirthdas lived at ‘Chanijan’ and his grandson Sawai Uttamchand was in the year 1758, staying at Saywan. In 1859, Dacoits burnt Khudabad leading to an exodus of Bhagias, Tejwanis and their Guru. They moved to Saywan and built a Darbar (Temple) for their Guru.

During the Mirs reign, Sawai Nebhumal, son of Sawai Uttamchand shifted to Hyderabad and lived at Juman Shah Jo Pur. His Darbar is believed to have powers to grant wishes.

Around the same time Gosain Radh Gur and Gosain Harnam Gur built their Darbars at Halla and Hyderabad respectively. Prior to building of these Darbars, according to Shah Sahib’s Rasalas (Poetry), the Jogis, Saints, and Sadhus assembled at Kali Mata’s Temple near Ganjo Thhakar, outside the city of Hyderabad to pray.   

The grandfather of Thadanis, Mr. Thadomal along with his two brothers Baharmal and Kalyandas, had migrated to Hyderabad with Gosain.

Mr. Gehimal, brother of Mr. Thadomal, and his son Mr. Shivdas Gehimal stayed back at Tilty, District Saywan. Their descendants call themselves Gehani.

Mr. Shivdas Gehimal had two sons: Mr. Raisingh and Mr. Makomal. Their descendants call themselves Raisinghani and Makwani. They are all offshoots of Thadanis of Hyderabad. In other words, their roots are connected with Bhagia Nukh families who hailed from Jaisalmer.



Jaisinghanis hail from Larkana. Their ancestors left Rajputana in the year 1811- 1812 due to famine and moved to Sind to stay near ‘Ratay Deray’ at ‘Khanwah’. They bought land and cultivated it. However, in the year 1850, flood forced them to move again to higher grounds. Some Jaisinghanis went to ‘Taeb’ and others to ‘Ratay Deray’. They were all zamindars.

The Jaisinghanis thus are split into two groups. One, Jaisinghanis of Taeb and the others of Ratay Deray.

From Ratay Deray: Mr. Dayaram Kishinchand Jaisinghani was born in Sept. 1904. He, after passing matriculation (O level) worked as a teacher at Karachi’s Model School. While teaching, he passed his BA.

Around  the  same  time,  one  Mr. Chandulal Nirbhdas Wadhwani  had founded 

‘S. C. Shahani High School’ at Gadi Khato, Karachi, and named it after Principal Shahani. Mr. Dayaram took over the school and became its Principal. He recruited graduates as teachers and brought up the standard of the school.

Mr. Dayaram was also a zamindar and owned landed property. He left no stone unturned to make his School a successful and a prestigious one.

Mr. Chandulal, younger brother of Mr. Dayaram, was born in 1910. He had passed his BA, LL.B. and S.T.C. As a student, he was influenced by the freedom movement.

 Mr. Chandulal was a member of the working committee of ‘All India Students Federation’ representing Sind and was the General Secretary of ‘All Sind Students’.

 Mr. Chandulal was a vivid writer and had written many schoolbooks and novels viz. ‘Zindhai Dil’, ‘Madhuri’ and ‘Dokho’ etc.

After passing BA. Mr. Chandulal worked as a teacher for a while and became Head Master of ‘Kanwar Model High School’. Later, he took over as Vice Principal of ‘S. C. Shahani High School’. Mr. Chandulal was an active Scout. He was the Secretary of ‘Sind Boy Scout Association’ and editor of its magazine.

Mr. Chandulal was also the organizer of The ‘Sind Educational Conference’. To make the conference a success, he toured entire Sind. In addition to the above, he was secretary of ‘Chandka Panchayat’ (Larkana’s Pangati Samaj). During ‘1942 Congress movement’, many leaders were arrested and jailed. He was one of them.

After passing his LL.B. Mr. Chandulal gave up the teaching profession and practiced law. His wife Mrs. Sarla also had a keen interest in the happenings of those times. She also wrote articles for Larkana’s ‘Sindhu’ and other magazines.  


Jaisinghani from Taeb: Jaisinghanis of Taeb, though they came to Sind during the reign of the Mirs, did not serve under them. However, they donned the attire of the Diwans and carried swords.

Diwan Bherumal M. Advani writes in his volume that he, in his lifetime, had seen one such Jaisinghani carrying a sword that had Farsi words inscribed on the blade and it’s manger was made of gold.

From the Jaisinghanis of Taeb (during the British rule), Diwan Ramchand. He had five sons. Each son started his own surname.

Diwan Ramchand’s son Diwan Kimatrai was an eminent Advocate of his time. All disputes amongst the residents of Bangal Deray, Kheri Deray and Panju Deray were referred to and settled by him. He expired at the age of 104 years at the start of the 20th century.

Diwan Kimatrai had three sons. Hardasmal, Izmatrai and Hashmatrai. The eldest son Diwan Hardasmal was a well-known Advocate and ‘Hon. Magistrate’ at Larkana. Diwan Kimatrai’s grand son, Mr. Atarlal was also an Advocate at Larkana in 1947.

Diwan Izmatrai was a zamindar. A village ‘Izmatabad’ is named after him. Nearby is a Village ‘Kimatabad’ named after Diwan Kimatrai. In the same vicinity is the Village ‘Hashmatabad’ named after Diwan Hashmatrai Kimatrai. 

Diwan Partabrai, younger brother of Diwan Kimatrai, also had a village ‘Partababad’ named after him and so did his son Diwan Gianchand: – village ‘Gianpur’. All these, villages are located towards Gharahi Deray.  

Diwan Atmaram, son of Diwan Hashmatrai, was alive in the year 1947. He had his farms near Jacobabad, and a Saree printing unit at Hashmatabad. At Karachi he had two three bungalows and other property. His sons: M/s. Khushiram, Madhavdas and Gokaldas are/were with him in zamindari.

Diwan Bherumal Mahirchand Advani, in his book “History of Hindus in Sind”, has written: –

         “While touring Sind,

If one gets off at the Railway Station of Nava Dera and proceeds towards Ratay Deray, en-route he meets

at Panjo Deray: Mulchandanis and Chhuganis, 

at Taeb: Jaisingani’s and

at Bangelderay: Badlanis, Keswanis and Vaswanis.

at Khere Deray: he meets Bijlanis and

at village Vaidad in Taluka Ratay Deray: he meets Kakas and Daryananis”.


JETHMALANI: – Mr. Jethmal.

 Nukh: Chhabria.

 The Mukhi’s of Hyderabad, Saghranis, have the same Nukh.  

Jethmalanis are Arorvanshi hailing from Shikarpur. Diwan Jethmal, son of Diwan Beleram, forefather of the Jethmalanis, was appointed by the Mir, rulers of Hyderabad, as Governor of Shikarpur. The official currency that was in circulation was produced in a Mint owned by Diwan Jethmal. The coins bore his mark  “ J ” on it. Even after the British takeover, the coins remained a legal tender.

During the first German war, the price of the metal rose. The metal in the coins was worth more then its face value. This led to coins being melted. Five of those coins were shown by Diwan Gurmukhdas Advocate, son of Diwan Notandas, Grandson of Diwan Jethmal, to the author Diwan Bherumal M. Advani. Due to wear and tear, the alphabet “ J “ was not very visible. But the word ‘Shikarpur’ was very clear. It was an honor for a Sindhi Hindu in the Muslim era, to have his coins as a legal tender.

Diwan Jethmal’s army consisted of  “Rohila” (Pathans from the Mountains). He, Diwan Jethmal, being a Hindu, had Muslims protecting him.

Diwan Jethmal was a loyal and trusted Diwan of the Mirs and remained loyal to them even after their rule ended with the British take over. The British offered Diwan Jethmal a post in the government, but Diwan Jethmal declined the offer and migrated to Multan where he lived with Lala Mulraj, Governor of Multan. Soon thereafter, Mir Ali Murad Khan offered Diwan Jethmal the post of Revenue Minister in the State of Kherpur. Diwan Jethmal happily accepted the post and shifted to Kherpur.

Diwan Jethmal’s son, Diwan Notandas was a Mukhtiarkar. (Revenue Officer).

 Diwan Notandas’ sons: M/s. Sukhramdas, Radhakrishin, Sawaldas, Gurmukhdas Advocate and Sakhawatrai. The Jethmalanis were the only Diwans in Shikarpur.

 Diwan Bherumal M. Advani writes that “Mirza Atta Mohammed” had given detailed information on Jethmalanis in his volume “Dastakhat Tareekh”, written in Farsi.    


‘The Source of Sindhi Surnames’ is a translation into English, by Mr. Narain Sobhraj Kimatrai from the original in Sindhi by Mr. Diwan Bherumal Mahirchand Advani