Chapter 10











Dear Readers,

Can you help him?


I have had an interesting time reading the articles in your website, lots of good information regarding my heritage.

I hope you could help me in tracing my roots,

My father’s surname is Ganglani, his family came from Hyderabad Sind, but he passed away some fifteen years ago and I never learned where my ancestors came from,

I would appreciate it if you have any information regarding anything about the surname Ganglani and/or relatives who might be in India or in other parts of the world,

I reside in the Philippines.

Thank you very much

Pirkash C. Ganglani 


DEVNANI: – Seth Devandas.

Nukh: Dakhni.

The Devnanis were zamindars and lived at Tando Hyder, near Hyderabad. They are descendants of Seth Devandas.

Seth Devandas sired Seth Pahlajrai. Seth Pahlajrai sired Seth Sirumal. Prominent amongst Seth Sirumal’s roots was Seth Shewaram. He was a zamindar.

Seth Shewaram enrolled his children into English Medium School and after completing their education they went into business and flourished. Their offices under the name of ‘M/s. Shewaram Rewachand’ were at Hyderabad, Matli, Talhar, Karachi and Bombay. They had Cotton Ginning Mill at Matli and Hyderabad, and a rice mill at Talhar.

Seth Shewaram’s eldest son was Seth Jya-jyi-mal (Jajimal). All his children were graduates.

Mr. Chandiram, the eldest son, was a Civil Engineer and in 1947 he was chairman of Matli Municipal Committee.

Mr. Sobhraj, the second son, was B.A., LL.B. and practiced Law at Hyderabad. He was also member of Hyderabad Municipal Corp.

Mr. Chandiram’s third son, Dr. Chellaram held L.C.P.S. Degree and managed his Karachi office. In addition he was member of Indian Central Cotton Committee, and also was Vice President of Karachi Cotton Association. Dr. Chellaram was the President The Indian Merchants Association for one term.

Seth Rijhumal Shewaram was Secretary of Sind Ginners Association, Hyderabad and member of Sind Cotton Committee. He was also Vice President of Hyderabad District Local Board for three years.



Nukh: Dar-ri.

 Balwani of Sahiti, Takhtani, Kirtani, Hingorani, Ramchandani of Hyderabad and the Malkani’s have the same Dar-ri Nukh. They all left Jaisalmer at the same time and settled at Navsheri Firoz.

The Ramrakhani were zamindars and traders. Later some of them opted for higher education and became Advocates and some took Government jobs viz. Mr. Pessumal and his brother Tarachand Advocates, Mr. Gobindram (Gopi) Sub. Judge and Mr. Bhuromal Chandiram of ‘Hindu’ newspaper and others.


RAI KANGHOR: – Raja Khanghar.

Nukh: Rai Kanghor.

Rai Kanghors were all scattered over the Sind, from Keti Bunder to Badeen, Kutch and Rajputana.

It appears that Rai Khanghar was the ruler of Kutch when these families migrated to Sind. Rai Kanghors adapted their rulers name as their surname and Nukh. Over the years the name Khanghar changed to Kanghor.

In the ancient days, Rai Kanghors lived at Rar-hi near Jati and were forced to move due to en-gulfment by the sea or an earthquake. They then moved to Jhok Shariff and other places.

It is said the Rai Kanghors are a proud lot, and do not bow their head to any one. If they had enter a narrow gate or a door where they had to bow their head to enter, they would first insert their legs, and then the chest and then the head, thus not bowing the head.

It is also said that one Rai Kanghor Seth, while recounting the past glamour of his family, inquired from his arm why it kept on moving and shaking. The arm did not heed to his query and continued to shake and move while walking. Angered, the Rai Kanghor Seth cut his arm off.

The Rai Kanghors used to add ‘Rai” before their first name, viz. Rai Chand etc. But with times they dropped the word Rai and added the words Chand, Das, Mal etc. after their first name.


RUPANI: – Seth Rupchand Vedomal.

Nukh: Achhra.

The Rupanis, prior to migrating to Nawabshah, Tando Adam and Mirpur Khas, lived at Village Chanheen in district Navsheri Firoz. They were zamindars. 

Seth Rupchand Vedomal was a shopkeeper in village Chanheen.  He had five sons: M/s. Manomal, Sirumal, Jagatrai, Ramkrishin and Milyomal. Village Chanheen Mano was named after his son Mr. Manomal.

Rupanis owned Cotton Ginning Mills at Tando Adam, Shahdadpur, Nawab Shah and at Bhareen. They had (in 1947) their office at Karachi.

Seth Kasharam Rupani was (in 1947) member of Karachi Municipal Corp., and Director of Karachi Cotton Association. He was also a member of The North Western Railway Advisory Committee.   


SAGHRANI: – Diwan (Mukhi) Sagharmal.

Nukh: Chhabria.

Jethmalanis of Shikarpur have the same Nukh. During the Mirs reign, their forefather Diwan Jethmal was Governor of Shikarpur. Families with the same Chhabria Nukh exist in Punjab and are called Arorvanshi. They are Lohanas and descendants of Shree Ramachandra’s son Lava. They were originally worshipers of Lord Mahadeva and by virtue of their staying in Punjab they became Sikhs (followers of Guru Nanak – Sikhism). In Punjab their ancestors stayed at Dera Ghazi Khan.

The ancestors of Chhablanis and Mangharmalanis of Hyderabad also hail from Dera Ghazi Khan and had come to Sind around the year 1725.

The forefather of Saghranis was Diwan Mavaldas Manohardas. He was born around the year 1700 at Dera Ghazi Khan. His family priest was Mr. Khanchand son of Mr. Sanbhnomal. Diwan Mavaldas knew Farsi (Persian) and was a Diwan in the Court of the Kalhoras and stayed at Khudabad near Dadoo.    

Diwan Mavaldas sired two sons: – M/s. Sagharmal and Nagarmal. The Saghranis are named after Mr. Sagharmal and the Nagranis are named after Mr. Nagarmal.

Diwan Sagharmal was born in the year 1730 at Khudabad. He had two sons named M/s. Dharmdas and Rajaram born in 1752 and 1754 respectively.

In the year 1759, during the Kalhora reign, Khosas (a caste among Muslims) looted and burnt Khudabad. Diwan Mavaldas and his family moved towards Halla and settled at a city named New Khudabad that had been constructed by those who had earlier fled from old Khudabad.

Around the time when Mir Fatehali Khan defeated the Kalhoras and took over as the new ruler of Sind, New Khudabad was inundated by River Sindhu. Mir Fatehali Khan then chose Hyderabad (Naren Kot) as his capital city.

New Khudabad almost became a ghost city with most of the Hindus migrating to Hyderabad where they occupied land extending from the Fort to Chhotki Ghitti. At the time when Saghranis came to Hyderabad, Mukhti Ghitti was already inhabited by the Bhaibunds. See Daswani chapter.

Diwan Mavaldas had very cordial relationship with the ruler of Sind and managed to get plots of land at prime locations. Then came the Amils who occupied plots from Chhotki Ghitti to Seray Ghat.

Seth (Diwan) Tarachand Saghrani was a very influential man and headed the Bhaibund panchayat as its Mukhi. Municipalities did not exist in those days. The Panchayats looked after the functions of sanitation, roads, lighting etc.

When the Amils came to Hyderabad they were part and parcel of one panchayat that was formed by the Bhaibunds with Seth Tarachand as its Mukhi. Later they formed their own panchayat resulting in Amils, Bhaibunds and Mukhis being identified separately.

The name Mukti Ghitti means street of the Mukhis.

Family Tree: –

Saghrani: – Mukhi Sagharmal had two sons: M/s. Dharamdas (1753-1802) and Rajaram (1754-1786).

Mukhi Dharamdas Sagharmal sired four sons: M/s. Assanand (Assandas), Majlasrai, Tarachand and Valiram. All the four sons were born at New Khudabad near Halla. Their roots are as follows:

Mukhi Assanand Dharamdas was born in 1780 at New Khudabad. After moving to Hyderabad they lived in Mukti Ghitti. Mukhi Assanand and his brothers were Shroffs (Bankers) and dealt in spices and grain (General Produce) as well. Theirs was a joint family business.

Diwan Bherumal writes that It was learnt from the Shijras (records – family tree) maintained by the Pinda (Brahmin) Badaldas Bulchand of Sindhi Dharamsala Haridwar, that wife of Mukhi Tarachand expired in the year 1835 and Mukhi Assanand had carried her remains (ashes) for performing the last rites at Haridwar. At that time “Kumbh Mela” was in progress.

The record also disclosed that a group of Bhaibunds left Hyderabad for Haridwar in a caravan travelling by boat, and then by road in bullock carts. The entire journey had taken them three or four months.

Mukhi Assanand married Bhai Uttamchand’s (Uttamchandani) sister and sired two sons: M/s. Tilokchand and Basantrai. Mukhi Assanand also had two daughters. The eldest daughter married Munshi Takhatram Manshiani (Advani). Mukhi Assanand expired in the year 1838. Rai Sahib Bulchand Khemchand Advani, who worked with the Public Works Dept., was a descendent of Munshi Takhatram.

Mukhi Tilokchand Assandas was born around the year 1810. After his father’s demise he separated from his uncles (chacha). In the year 1854 Mukhi Tilokchand separated from his brother Mukhi Basantrai and moved to a separate house in the same street. Mukhi Tilokchand was a trader.

Mukhi Tilokchand’s first marriage was with the auntie (puphi- fathers’ sister) of Bhai Mulchand Kirpalani Aaj waro (Ivory Merchant) and had two sons named Mukhi Khemchand and Mukhi Tejumal. From second marriage, Mukhi Tilokchand had six sons. Mukhi Tilokchand also had four daughters. One daughter was married into Diwan Chandasingh Shahani’s family, two in Punwanis and the fourth into Mansukhani family. Mukhi Tilokchand expired during the Year 1870.

Mukhi Khemchand Tilokchand was born around the year 1831. Unlike his cousins, he was not a trader. He was a broker. Mukhi Khemchand had six sons and one daughter. The daughter was married into Amils (Lalwanis). Mukhi Khemchand expired in I901.

Mukhi Hotchand Khemchand, the eldest son of Mukhi Khemchand Tilokchand was born in the year 1849. He worked with his cousin Mukhi Chandumal Valiram at Sakhar. At the age of 25, Mukhi Hotchand joined Bhai Wassiamull Assumull’s firm and went to Singapore. After some time he left the firm and went to Java Indonesia, and established his own office.

Mukhi Hotchand sired three sons: M/s. Naraindas, Bagomal and Khanchand. Mukhi Naraindas and Mukhi Bagomal joined their father in Java and helped expended the business.

Mukhi Hotchand spent the last twenty years of his life at Hyderabad. He spent most of his time at his cousin Mukhi Sukhramdas Hiranand’s gadhi (office).

Diwan Bherumal M. Advani writes that Mukhi Hotchand was a jovial and good hearted man. He was fond of good food and good life and lived in his own house and not with his brothers.

In the year 1900, Mukhi Hotchand constructed his own house in Mukhi Naraindas Ghitti. Mukhi Hotchand had married daughter of Bhai Hotchand Gunomal of Mirpur Bathori.

Mukhi Hotchand’s senior partner was Bhai Menghraj Mewaram, grandson of Bhai Gunomal. Bhai Menghraj had played an important role in the expansion of business.

Mukhi Naraindas Hotchand, the eldest son of Mukhi Hotchand was born in the year 1869. He spent most of his life in Java Indonesia and had helped expend the business.

Mukhi Naraindas stayed in Hyderabad for a very brief period and had very few friends. He had one daughter and two sons: Mukhi Pessumal and Mukhi Wadhumal. Mukhi Naraindas expired in the year 1911.

Mukhi Pessumal Naraindas the eldest son of Mukhi Naraindas was born in the year 1890 and at a young age his father took him Java Indonesia and enrolled him into a Dutch School. Indonesia was then under Dutch rule and as a result Mukhi Pessumal acquired Dutch Nationality. He was called ‘Wilhelm’.

Mukhi Pessumal thereafter joined his father’s business and in the year 1915, he separated from his brother and uncle Mukhi Bagomal. Mukhi Dayaram Vishindas arbitrated the separation. Soon thereafter, in 1916, Mukhi Pessumal expired and bequeathed his estate to his wife. 

Mukhi Pessumal married daughter of Bhai Jethmal Narumal Kirpalani. In the memory of her late husband, she built a Reading Room in the Dialdas Mulchand Club.

Mukhi Wadhumal Naraindas: – The second son of Mukhi Naraindas, Mukhi Wadhumal was born in the year 1897. He joined his uncle Mukhi Bagomal at young age. Mukhi Wadhumal was then given the management of M/s Hotchand Khemchand. Mukhi Bagomal in his Will had named Mukhi Wadhumal as his trustee and had bequeathed a major portion of his estate to him and donated lacs of rupees towards the charity. Despite the wealth and power, Mukhi Wadhumal was gentle and a simple man. He was bestowed the title of ‘Rai Bahadur’.

Mukhi Wadhumal, in the year 1915 married daughter of Bhai Chuharmal Kilachand Uttamchandani and had two sons: Mukhi Fatehchand and Mukhi Hargobind. 

Mukhi Fatehchand Wadhumal was born in the year 1916. After passing sixth grade in English, he went overseas. In the year 1935, he married daughter of Bhai Gagandas Tejumal Mahtani and had two sons: Mukhi Hiranand and Mukhi Tarachand.

Mukhi Bagomal Hotchand: – Mukhi Hotchand’s second son Mukhi Bagomal was born in the year 1878. At a young age Mukhi Bagomal joined his brother Mukhi Naraindas in Java Indonesia. On Mukhi Naraindas’ demise in the year 1911, Mukhi Bagomal joined his nephew Mukhi Pessumal and separated in the year 1915. Mukhi Bagomal then did his own business under the name of “Mukhi Hotchand Khemchand”.

Mukhi Bagomal prospered and was considered the richest amongst his brothers and cousins. He retired and returned to Hyderabad in 1920. Despite the wealth, Mukhi Bagomal maintained cordial relationship with his cousins and with Mukhi Hiranand Tarachand.

At Hyderabad Mukhi Bagomal lived in Mukhi Naraindas Ghitti and in the year 1923 he moved in into his newly constructed house near old Mission School.

Mukhi Bagomal though married thrice, had only one son from his last wife but the child died in infancy. The third wife Shrimati Radhibai expired in the year 1932. In her memory Mukhi Bagomal constructed a free charitable hospital near the Fort in Shahi Bazaar where daily around three hundred patients received treatment, free of cost.

In March 1940, Mukhi Bagomal expired due to sudden heart attack. Mukhi Bagomal left a Will that provided rupees three lacs to his daughter Shrimati Jamnabai, four to five lacs to charity and the remaining wealth to his nephew Mukhi Wadhumal, who was his partner till the end.   

Mukhi Bagomal was the President of Hyderabad Bhaibund Club and Director of the Hyderabad Electricity Co.

Mukhi Bagomal’s daughter was married to Bhai Kundanmal Rewachand Wattumal Mahtani.

Mukhi Tejumal Tilokchand: – Mukhi Tilokchand’s son Mukhi Tejumal, brother of Mukhi Khemchand, was born in the year 1834. Mukhi Tejumal worked as a broker (commission agent) due to his moderate means with limited recourses. Within his bradri, he was the only Mukhi who continued to live in Mukti Ghitti till the end. His cousins and other members of the bradri had all moved to other locations.

Mukhi Tejumal was married into Dadlanis of Karachi. He mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:”Bookman Old Style””> passed away in the year 1875 and left behind four sons: M/s. Nichaldas, Aloomal, Bagomal and Kundomal. All the four sons prospered and brought the status of their family up.

Mukhi Nichaldas Tejumal: – Mukhi Nichaldas was born in the year 1860. At the age of 15 his father Mukhi Tejumal passed away leaving behind his widow and children. Mukhi Nichaldas was the eldest among the sons. To support the family he worked in his cousin Mukhi Sukhramdas’ office.  Some time later he went to Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and worked with Mukhi Pritamdas’ Colombo office and there Mukhi Nichaldas proved his worth. His brothers Mukhi Aloomal went to Rangoon Burma, Mukhi Bagomal to Malta and Mukhi Kundomal went to Colombo. All the four prospered.

Mukhi Nichaldas Tejumal’s brother Mukhi Bagomal was 17 years old when in the company of other Sindworkees, he left home and went to Malta. After spending some time there, Mukhi Bagomal came to conclusion that Malta was the place to be in. He returned to Hyderabad and briefed his brother Nichaldas with his findings.  

To open an office at Malta, initial capital was required. Mukhi Nichaldas in consultation with Mukhi Bagomal took a loan from his cousin Mukhi Sukhramdas and in the year 1888, left for Malta accompanied by his brothers M/s. Aloomal and Bagomal. The fourth brother Mukhi Kundomal joined them later.

On reaching Malta, the three brothers camped in a hotel. Being winter and the night very cold, they shut all the windows of the room and lit a coal-fired heater. Come morning, Mukhi Nichaldas and Mukhi Aloomal found Mukhi Bagomal dead due to Asphyxia.

Mukhi Nichaldas and Mukhi Aloomal were in a state of shock. Twenty-year old brother on whose strength and experience they had depended and come to Malta was no more. They then braced themselves and took control of the situation. Mukhi Nichaldas and Mukhi Aloomal then opened their own shop in the Persian Indian Bazaar (street).

Mukhi Nichaldas was also known as Nichamal. The brothers named their shop “Nichamal Bros.”. Business prospered and so did the profits. Soon they opened a branch at Port Said and Cairo, Egypt under the name of ‘M/s A. Nichamal’.

Mukhi Nichaldas was handsome and had good features and fair complexion. He passed for a European. Mukhi Nichaldas separated from his brothers in 1902 and returned to Hyderabad.

At Hyderabad Mukhi Nichaldas lived in his ancestral house in Mukhi Paro. After his return from Malta, he bought some land and built his own house. Mukhi Nichaldas married the sister of Bhai Issardas Tiloosingh Mahtani and had three daughters.

The Author Diwan Bherumal married the eldest daughter of Mukhi Nichaldas, thereby making him his father in law. The other two daughters also were married into Amils.

On demise of Mukhi Nichaldas’ wife, (mother in law of Diwan Bherumal), Mukhi Nichaldas remarried into Uttamchandani and had two sons but both the sons died in infancy. Mukhi Nichaldas expired in the year 1909.

Mukhi Aloomal Tejumal: – Mukhi Tejumal’s second son Mukhi Aloomal was born around the year 1865. He was 10 years old when his father Mukhi Tejumal expired.

As a youngster Mukhi Aloomal was very bright and intelligent. Without informing any one at home, he went away to Rangoon, Burma in company of other Sindworkees. There he worked diligently. Mukhi Aloomal made good money and prospered.

In 1888, Mukhi Aloomal, along with his brothers Mukhi Nichaldas and Mukhi Bagomal ventured out to Malta. There, on arrival, Mukhi Bagomal expired. The two brothers i.e. Mukhi Aloomal and Mukhi Nichaldas started their own office. Later, their brother Mukhi Kundomal joined them. The three of them worked hard and business prospered. Soon they opened a branch at Port Said and at Cairo, Egypt under the name of ‘A. Nichamal’ and deputed Mukhi Aloomal to manage it.

Due to failing health, Mukhi Nichaldas separated from his brothers and in the year 1902 returned to Hyderabad. Mukhi Kundomal and Mukhi Aloomal also separated amongst themselves with Mukhi Kundomal taking over Malta and Mukhi Aloomal taking over Port Said and Cairo.

Mukhi Aloomal thereafter appointed his cousin Mukhi Kesomal Sobhraj to manage his Cairo branch. After a while, Mukhi Kesomal left Cairo for Khartoum Sudan, and started his own business there. 

In 1901, Mukhi Aloomal married Miss Queenie Grahams (an English lady) at Cairo though he had a Sindhi wife at home in Hyderabad. After marriage, Mukhi Aloomal closed his Cairo office and moved to Port Said where he had his other office. There, both husband and wife worked very hard and prospered. Amongst the brothers, he made the most and was the richest.

To enjoy the fruits of their hard work, both Mukhi Aloomal and his European wife moved to London where they had bought a Bungalow.

Mukhi Aloomal was a religious man and supported charities to help the poor and needy.  In 1913 cancer struck him on the tongue. He underwent all the medical treatments available at London but to no avail.

Mukhi Aloomal then decided to return to Hyderabad. On the way back to Hyderabad, while still on the ship, he felt unwell and when the ship docked at Port Said, Mukhi Aloomal broke his journey and got off.

News of Mukhi Aloomal’s ailment had reached Hyderabad and his cousin Mukhi Choithram Dhanrajmal was deputed by the family to proceed to London to escort Mukhi Aloomal home.

The only mode of travel in those days was by ships that sailed through the Suez Canal touching Port Said. Mukhi Choithram did not have to travel to London. Cancer had spread and it took its toll. Mukhi Aloomal expired within three to four days of Mukhi Choithram’s arrival. Mukhi Aloomal’s body was cremated on the beach. It was witnessed by a large gathering that included Govt. Officials, friends and onlookers. Cremation of a Hindu was never witnessed by the Egyptians before. They flocked and joined the procession.

Mukhi Aloomal had a close and cordial relationship with his cousin Mukhi Hiranand Tarachand. Mukhi Mangharam Garodanmal and Mukhi Choithram had gone to London for higher studies and had stayed with Mukhi Aloomal. Both Mukhi Aloomal and his wife Queenie had looked after them affectionately as their own kin.

Mukhi Aloomal, a few days prior to his death had taken Mukhi Choithram to his Port Said office and transferred its ownership by way of sale to M/s. Mukhi Hiranand Tarachand through the hands Mukhi Choithram. 

Mukhi Aloomal wrote his Will giving his London assets and jewelry to his wife Queeie. A portion of his wealth he bequeathed to charity. The reminder of his wealth, including his property at Hyderabad, he left to his Sindhi wife.

Madam Queenie Aloomal expired at London in the year 1923. Mukhi Aloomal’s Sindhi wife was alive at the time of partition of India.

Mukhi Aloomal had only one daughter who was married and was the sole heir to her father’s estate. Out of the funds that Mukhi Aloomal had left for charity, a sum of 17 thousand rupees were spent on improvement of Hyderabad’s cremation ground. Trustee of the estate of Mukhi Aloomal was Mukhi Harkishindas Gurvadanmal, who resigned from the trusteeship in favour of Mrs. Mukhi Aloomal.

Mukhi Bagomal Tejumal: – Mukhi Bagomal was born in the year 1868 and expired at Malta in the year 1888. He had no children. His wife expired in the year 1926.

At the age of 17, Mukhi Bagomal left Hyderabad in the company of other Sindworkees for Malta. After spending some time there, he came to conclusion that Malta was the place to be in to make money. He returned to Hyderabad and briefed his brother Nichaldas with his findings.

Mukhi Bagomal Tejumal was a kind-hearted man and all his brothers were fond of him. To open an office at Malta, initial capital was required. Mukhi Nichaldas in consultation with Mukhi Bagomal took a loan from his cousin Mukhi Sukhramdas and in the year 1888 left for Malta accompanied by his brothers M/s. Aloomal and Bagomal. Unfortunately Mukhi Bagomal expired on arrival at Malta. The fourth brother Mukhi Kundomal later joined them. They had an office in the Persian Indian Bazaar (street). 

Mukhi Kundomal Tejumal: – Mukhi Kundomal was the fourth son of Mukhi Tejumal and was born in the year 1870. He and his brothers were partners. When the brothers split, Mukhi Kundomal received Malta office in his share.

Mukhi Kundomal passed away suddenly in the year 1908. His widow, at the time of partition of India was alive. They had three daughters, all married.

None of the four brothers i.e. M/s. Nichaldas, Aloomal, Bagomal and Kundomal had any sons.

Mukhi Deomal Tilakchand: – Mukhi Deomal (brother of Mukhi Khemchand) was born in the year 1843. He was the third son of Mukhi Tilokchand. Mukhi Deomal had spent some time in Java Indonesia and Singapore and expired at Hyderabad. His son Mukhi Dilomal a.k.a. Khushaldas also lived in Java and Singapore. He expired in the year 1938.

Mukhi Kodumal Tilokchand: – Mukhi Kodumal was born in the year 1844 and expired in 1908. He had three sons: M/s. Hassomal, Khanchand and Hemandas. All three were Sindworkees.

Mukhi Assanmal Tilokchand: – Mukhi Assanmal a.k.a. Mukhi Jaromal was a twin, hence the name ‘Jaro’. Mukhi Assanmal also spent some time in Java and Singapore. Due to certain circumstances, he had to quit Java and stayed on in Singapore as a guest of M/s. Wassiamull Assumull.  Mukhi Assanmal later returned to Hyderabad and expired in the year 1924.

Mukhi Assanmal had two sons: M/s. Lilaram and Dharamdas.

Mukhi Lilaram was born in 1889 and had business in Java where he lived with his wife. He expired during the Japanese war in the year 1945.

Mukhi Dharamdas was alive at the time of partition of India.

Mukhi Askirandas Tilokchand: – Mukhi Askirandas a.k.a. Jaromal Nandho (younger twin) was the sixth son of Mukhi Tilokchand. He was the twin brother of Mukhi Assanmal a.k.a. Mukhi Jaromal. Mukhi Askirandas had two sons: M/s. Topandas and Verhomal.

Mukhi Gopaldas was the seventh son. He expired in 1880.

Mukhi Metharam was the eighth son. He was born in 1856 and expired in the year 1881. 

All these three brothers had business in Java and Malaya. With the sudden death of Mukhi Askirandas, Mukhi Metharam suffered a set back. He had to shut the shop.

Mukhi Topandas Askirandas and Mukhi Verhomal were still minors at the time Mukhi Metharam had to shut the shop.

When Mukhi Topandas attained maturity, he went to Singapore and worked with M/s. Wassiamull Assumull and was their partner for a brief period. In 1926, Mukhi Topandas separated and ventured out to Bangkok Thailand where he started his own business but could not make a success out of it. Mukhi Topandas passed away at Bangkok. His son Mukhi Naraindas was alive at the time of partition.      

Mukhi Verhomal Askirandas also had business in Java that he closed and returned to Hyderabad for good. 

Mukhi Basantrai son of Mukhi Assanand Dharamdas: – Mukhi Basantrai, the second son of Mukhi Assanand was born in the year 1826. He separated from his elder brother Mukhi Tilokchand and did his own business. Mukhi Basantrai was smart, swift, and adventurous and made a success of his venture.

Mukhi Basantrai worked for the uplift of the community and stood side by side with his cousin Mukhi Hiranand Tarachand in the Panchayat activities.

Bhai Uttamchand (Uttamchandani), an important and prominent man of his time, was Mukhi Basantrai’s mother’s brother (mama).

Mukhi Basantrai had married twice and had seven daughters. Two of his daughters were married into Malkani, one daughter married Rai Bahadur Diwan Harumal Jhangiani Engineer, the fourth daughter, who was nicknamed as the ‘Mukhiani of Hyderabad’ and known as ‘Vishin Mukhiani’, was married to Diwan Lalchand Nanikram Advani Engineer. The remaining three daughters were also married into Amils.   

Mukhi Basantrai expired in the year 1875. As he did not have a son, he desired to adopt his daughter’s son Mr. Buxrai Jagatrai Malkani. However the other Mukhis objected and laid a condition that they would accept Mr. Buxrai as a Mukhi only if he got rid of his Amil attire and dressed as other Mukhi’s did. They also wanted him to open a gadhi (office) like the others Mukhis.

Mr. Buxrai’s parents did not agree to these terms and the matter lingered on. Mr. Buxrai moved in to live with his Grandfather (Nana) the adopted father. 

Mr. Buxrai inherited his father’s legacy and received substantial rental from the property that he sold and bought land in Nawab Shah and at Mirpur. After his adopted father (Nana) died, he sold his (Nana’s) house as well. He had no other business or activity. Mr. Buxrai married into Daswani and passed away in the year 1936.

Mr. Buxrai had three sons. The eldest son expired prior to 1947. The second son Mr. Ramchand in the year 1947 was Science Demonstrator at Karachi College and the third son Mr. Hashmatrai had his own business.

What is stated above pertains to Mukhi Assanand, son of Mukhi Dharamdas Sagarmal’s family.

Mukhi Majlasrai Dharamdas’ roots: – Mukhi Dharamdas’ second son Mukhi Majlasrai was born in the year 1785 and expired in 1840. His son Mukhi Varandmal (1800-1871) did not have any children. Mukhi Varandmal adopted a son named Sobhraj from his in law’s family. Mukhi Sobhraj was a cloth merchant and later ventured out to Rangoon Burma for Sindwork (business).

Mukhi Sobhraj was blessed with a son. After his son-attained maturity, Mukhi Sobhraj retired from the business.

In the year 1916 Mukhi Sobhraj shifted his residence from Mukti Ghitti to Old Post Office Street. Mukhi Sobhraj was married to daughter of Bhai Balumal Dharamdas who was considered as the first Sindworkee to venture out abroad.

Mukhi Sobhraj was born in the year 1840 and expired at the age of 90 years.  Mukhi Sobhraj had three daughters and seven sons.

Mukhi Sobhraj’s eldest son was Mukhi Partabrai (1863- 1938) who was the Head Master of a school at village Manjho district Kotri. Mukhi Partabrai had retired around twenty years prior to his death. In 1938, just as he (Mukhi Partabrai) was boarding a Tonga (two wheeler horse carriage) after collecting his pension from a bank, he collapsed and died.

Mukhi Sobhraj’s second son was Mukhi Khushiram (1869-1914). The third son was Mukhi Kasomal (1874-1918).

Mukhi Kasomal worked with his cousin Mukhi Nihalchand Tejumal at Cairo Egypt. Later he went to Khartoum Sudan and started his own business under the banner of M/s K. D. Sobhamal. Many cousins of Mukhi Kasomal had worked with Mukhi Kasomal’s firm. Mukhi Kasomal expired at Khartoum. His brother Mukhi Khanchand had his own business.

Mukhi Tarachand Dharamdas’ roots: – Mukhi Dharamdas Sagharmal’s third son Mukhi Tarachand was born in the year 1787 at New Khudabad, near Halla. On the demise of Mukhi Dharamdas in 1802, his two sons Mukhi Assanand and Mukhi Majlasrai separate from the family. Mukhi Tarachand and Mukhi Valiram, the two other younger brothers, remained together.

Mukhi Tarachand was a brilliant and smart man. He surpassed the two elder brothers in trade and prosperity. Mukhi Tarachand enjoyed good reputation in the community and was elected as The Head Mukhi of the Bhaibund Panchayat.

It was around this time that the Amils from Khudabad and other places came to Hyderabad. As the Amils did not have a panchayat of their own, they joined the existing Bhaibund panchayat of Hyderabad that was headed by Mukhi Tarachand. The Mukhis thereafter dominated the post for generations. The street they lived in was named Mukti Ghitti.

Mukhi Tarachand had his Kothi (office-gadhi) at Hyderabad. Later, he established another office at Nagar Thhato and spent more time there. A mile or two away from Nagar Thhato, was located the ‘Raj Ghat Darbar’ that was founded by Bhai Balikram of Punjab during the reign of Kalhoras.

Mukhi Tarachand revered the Darbar Sahib and visited it daily. The Ghadi Nasheen (Priest in charge) of the Darbar was Bhai Santokdas. Mukhi Tarachand sought Bhai Santokdas’ blessing so that God may grant him a son. Bhai Santokdas blessed him and said that he would beget one and directed that the child be named ‘Hiro’ (diamond).

With the Lord’s blessings, indeed a Hiro, (Mukhi Hiranand) was born. The descendants of Mukhi Hiranand paid their homage to the Darbar Sahib by visiting it regularly. 

During the lifetime of Mukhi Tarachand, his cousins, Bhojwanis of Karachi and other Sindhi merchants had their offices at ‘Lakhpat’, that was then a major trading centre. In 1843 the British went to war with the Mirs. Panicking, the residents fled to safer ground. Mukhi Tarachand and his cousins sent their ladies and children to Lakhpat for safety. Most Hindu males including Mukhi Tarachand stayed behind.

In the battle that pursued, on 19th Feb 1843, the Mirs were defeated and Sir Charles Nepier entered Hyderabad and took control of the city. Mukhi Tarachand and other residents of Hyderabad feared reprisal and apprehended looting from the hands of the British forces. Mukhi Tarachand along with four others met Sir Charles Nepier and pleaded with him to confine his forces to barracks and not to allow them to enter the city. They, the residents of Hyderabad undertook to provide them with food and other rations that the British forces needed and deliver it to them in their camp. Sir Charles conceded to their request. The British forces remained out side the city. The residents of Hyderabad provided the rations and panchayat footed the bill.

Sir Charles Nepier met Mukhi Tarachand and others in his camp at Gidu Bunder and thanked the Mukhi for the far sightedness they had and for the food that they had supplied. In appreciation, Sir Charles gifted the camp area to Mukhi Tarachand. The camp area came to be called ‘Mukhian Ji Khari’ i.e. ‘The Heel of the Mukhis. This information was disclosed to Diwan Bherumal by Mukhi Mangharam Gurdinomal and was on records in the “India Office”, London.

The Mirs had borrowed rupees two lacs from the merchants of Kora city. Mukhi Tarachand asked Sir Charles to reimburse the same from Mir’s confiscated wealth.

Sir Charles denied having confiscated any wealth of the Mirs and claimed that the same was not traceable. However, they allotted a Jagir (a parcel of land) to Mukhi Tarachand. The residents of the city got perturbed and seeing this, Mukhi Tarachand declined the Jagir.

There were no municipalities in Sind during the Mir regime. After the British take over, Sir Charles in the year 1846 introduced ‘The Board of Conservancy’ at Hyderabad and Karachi. In other cities, towns and villages, the panchayats looked after the municipal functions. Members of the Board of Conservancy were British Government officers and local residents selected by the British.

At Hyderabad, amongst the Bhaibunds, Mukhi Tarachand and from the Amils, Diwan Nandiram Hardaram Advani (Sadhu Navalrai Hiranand’s grand father) and Munshi Awatrai Malkani were selected.  

Diwan Nandiram Hardaram Advani, Munshi Awatrai Malkani, were the first Mukhi from the Amil side.

The Hyderabad panchayat was empowered to levy an entry tax (octroi) on the grain that entered the city. The money collected was spent for upkeep of Hyderabad. This responsibility was assigned to Mukhi Tarachand. To meet the deficit of the city finance, Mukhi Tarachand loan to the panchayat from his own funds and recovered the same from the entry tax as and when collected.

Mukhi Tarachand, at the age of 67, expired in the year 1854. His son Mukhi Hiranand had taken over the responsibilities from his father a few years earlier.

Mukhi Hiranand Tarachand: – Mukhi Tarachand’s son Mukhi Hiro was born in the year 1879 with the blessing of Bhai Santokdas of Raj Ghat Darbar located in the outskirts of Nagar Thhata.

Mukhi Hiranand was a brilliant, wise and a just man. He supported his father in all respects and followed his footsteps. He maintained friendly and cordial relationship with the Mirs. Mukhi Hiranand visited Mir’s Court daily and Mirs had a high regard for him and treated him with due respect and honor.

It is said that one Bhaibund was arrested for some offence and the Mir levied a fine of Rupees one thousand on him. Pending payment of the fine, the Bhaibund was handcuffed and chained and detained inside the Hyderabad Fort.

News of Bhaibund’s arrest reached Mukhi Hiranand and he along with some members of the panchayat went to the Darbar Hall (court- audience hall) and submitted to the Mirs that they had come to them for a very trivial matter. Mukhi Hiranand then requested that a zero be deleted from the fine. In response the Mirs asked Mukhi whether that was all he wanted, Mukhi said yes. The Mirs granted the request.

Mukhi Hiranand immediately took out one hundred rupees from his pocket and handed it over to the cashier (Khazanchi). The Khazanchi brought to the notice of the Mirs that the fine payable was Rs. 1000/- while the money received was only Rs. 100/-. Mukhi informed the cashier that one Zero had been dropped from the fine by the order of the Mir. Mir smiled and confirmed. The Bhaibund was released.

After Mirs defeat, the British rule commenced. In the year 1846, Hyderabad saw its own Municipal Corporation. British Government appointed a Bhaibund named Mukhi Tarachand as member of the Board. On the demise of Mukhi Tarachand, the British Govt. appointed Mukhi Hiranand to fill the void. Correspondence between the Board and the Government was done in Arabi Sindhi. Collector of Hyderabad used the services of Diwan Bagomal Mukhtiarkar (District Administrator) who knew Arabi Sindhi. Mukhi Hiranand on the other hand knew only Hatai (Devnagiri script where no vowels are used).

This caused great inconvenience to the Collector. Diwan Bagomal, realizing his handicap, learnt Hatai from Mukhi Hiranand and obtained a certificate of proficiency from him.  Diwan Bagomal was then transferred to the Collectors office.

Mukhi Hiranand was an influential man and close to the Collector and other Government officers. The Kamoras (civil servants) patronized Mukhi Hiranand, requesting for favors and promotions.

Mukhi Tarachand expired in the year 1854 and his son Mukhi Hiranand took over as Hyderabad’s Mukhi. Mukhi Hiranand was popular with both the Amils and Bhaibunds. Diwan Wadhumal Gangaram Thadani Sub. Judge, had praised Mukhi Hiranand in his novel ‘Khudabadian Lai Kanth Mala’ (Necklace for Khudabadis).

In the year 1885, local Municipalities took over the civic duties from the Panchayats.  Mukhi Hiranand was elected to the Board of the Corporation. He, Mukhi Hiranand and his cousin Mukhi Basantrai were very close to each other and jointly worked together to provide amenities for the Hyderabadis.

Located in Mukti Ghitti, off Shahi bazaar in Hyderabad was a Tikano (Gurdwara) of Bhai Kansingh Bedi. The Tikano was also called Bhai Issardas Jo Tikano that was patronized by Mukhi Hiranand.

It is said that once few elders from some villages came to Hyderabad for an arbitration and settlement of their dispute through the hands of Mukhi Hiranand and camped in the Tikano. The dispute concerned an alleged betrothal of a boy to a girl. One group claimed that the other group had committed to give their daughter’s hand in marriage while the other group claimed they had not. They all jointly approached Mukhi Hiranand to mediate and sat down on the floor.

Mukhi Hiranand then asked the group to stand up. The group complied. He asked the boy’s side to sit in one corner of the room. He then asked the girl’s side to go and sit on the other side of the room. The group complied. One group moved to the right and the other group moved to the left.

After a while Mukhi Hiranand got up and saying ‘Ram Ram’ (Good bye) to them left the room. Both the groups were astonished and stood up. They then requested Mukhi Hiranand to announce the award before leaving.

Mukhi Hiranand replied that the girl’s side by their own action had already given the award. Had there been no betrothal the question of their standing up and moving to the left or right would not have arisen. 

Mukhi Hiranand though involved in his civic activities also devoted time to his business. He jointly with his cousin Mukhi Chandumal Valiram dealt in spices. After some years he separated from the joint business but maintained his cordial relationship him.

Travel to Bombay from Sind was a Herculean task. There were no ships to sail by neither a direct land route. Despite the difficulties, Mukhi Hiranand in the year 1860 established his offices at Bombay and Karachi.

Mukhi Hiranand shifted his residence from Mukti Ghitti to his new house in Khatu Bandan Ghitti. Mukhi Hiranand and his descendants came to be known as ‘Nai Jagah Wara’ (New House). While the foundation of the house was being laid, a rumor spread that Mukhi Hiranand had unearthed a pot full of gold. The rumor turned out to be false. No such pot was discovered. Mukhi Hiranand was a wealthy man but the manner in which he lavishly spent money was as if he had unearthed a pot of Gold.

Mukhi Hiranand’s Kothi (office) was at first in the Shahi Bazaar next to his brothers’ Kothi. Later he bought a building near his new house in ‘Parwar Shah Jo Pir’ and shifted his Kothi there.

Mukhi Hiranand expired in the year 1873. He had four children, two sons and two daughters. Sons: Mukhi Sukhramdas and Mukhi Vishindas. His (Mukhi Hiranand’s) both daughters were married into Advani families. Mukhi Hiranand’s grand daughter (daughters’ daughter) was married to Diwan Vazirmal Uttamsingh Lalwani, Judge.

Mukhi Sukhramdas Hiranand: – Mukhi Sukhramdas was born in the year 1848. His Hyderabad Kothi was famous in the entire city. Though he did not sit much in the Kothi but behind the Kothi was an Otaq (back room) where he spent most of his time. Mukhi Sukhramdas was an intelligent man of quiet and reserve nature. He successfully expanded his business throughout Sind and in Bombay. At Hyderabad Bhai Gaganmal Rijhumal Mahtani and in Bombay Bhai Navalrai Choithram Hathiramani were his partners. Mukhi Sukhramdas then entered Sindwork and opened an office in Colombo that was managed by Mr. Atmaram Mojsingh Bhavnani together with two other Bhaibunds.

On the death of Mukhi Hiranand in the year 1873, his son Mukhi Sukhramdas became head Mukhi. Before taking any decisions on important civic matters he consulted his cousin Mukhi Chandumal Valiram who was elder to him in age. Despite this, Mukhi Sukhramdas could not fill the vacuum that was left behind by his father Mukhi Hiranand. Mukhi Sukhramdas was also a municipal counselor.

Mukhi Sukhramdas owned a farm house/garden located near Dholan Wah on the other bank of Fulayli, an outskirts of Hyderabad that he had purchased from his Hathiramani in-laws. Mukhi Sukhramdas held his parties (mahfils) there and entertained lavishly. He was fond of music and poetry and played Sitar as well. Noted singers from all over India visited Mukhi Sukhramdas at his Otaq and at his farmhouse.  The farmhouse was the talk of the town.

Towards the end, Mukhi Sukhramdas fell ill and spent about three to four months at his Otaq. He passed away in the year 1897.

Mukhi Sukhramdas had two sons and three daughters. His Sons: Mukhi Gurdinomal and Mukhi Gianchand. The eldest daughter married Diwan Tejumal Alimchand Lalwani (Deputy Educational Inspector), and the second daughter married Diwan Ramchand Panjumal Mansukhani (Police Inspector). The youngest daughter married Diwan Teckchand Hassanand Gidwani (zamindar).

Mukhi Gurdinomal Sukhramdas:- Mukhi Gurdinomal was born in the year 1866. He was brought up in luxury and donned Mir’s attire. At school, a chair was provided to him to sit while the other students sat on the benches. He had no interest in studies and left the school after studying second or third English grade. He however was fluent in Urdu.

As a youth, Mukhi Gurdinomal spent his time looking after his farm and land near Larkana that he owned in partnership with Diwan Takhatram Hotchand Mangharmalani. In the year 1903 he opened a rice mill at Ratay Deray and sold it off in the year 1930.

 In 1897, Mukhi Gurdinomal inherited his father’s seat as the Chief Mukhi. Together with Mukhi Pritamdas he managed the affairs of the panchayat.

Plague struck Hyderabad in the year 1897 leading to a mass exodus. Mukhi Gurdinomal made arrangement and shifted to his old farmhouse that was located behind Hyderabad’s National College. There he constructed around 250 temporary shelters for his cousins, relatives, employees and friends to live in for the duration of the epidemic that lasted for about four to five months.

Mukhi Gurdinomal was a jovial and a happy go lucky man. Like his father, he was fond of music and poetry. Singers from far and near visited him and gave their audition.

Mukhi Gurdinomal was a spend thrift and did not devote much time to his business that due to neglect had started declining. But, never the less, he was a rich man with ample wealth. 

In the year 1908, three or four days before Dassera he fell ill and expired at a young age of forty-two. His son Mukhi Mangharam was away at London for studies at that time and could not see his father’s face in the end.

Mukhi Gurdinomal married daughter of Seth Gaganmal Ramchand Uttamchandani and had five children. His two sons were Mr. Harkishindas and Mr. Mangharam. The eldest daughter married Diwan Shamdas Maniram Mirchandani (Judge). The second daughter had expired and was unmarried. The third daughter married Diwan Alimchand Lalwani’s grandson, Diwan Hotchand Tarachand (zamindar).  

Mukhi Harkishindas Gurdinomal: – Mukhi Harkishindas was born in the year 1883. He studied upto English sixth grade. During the lifetime of his father he looked after his zamindari at Laar and his office at Bombay.

Mukhi Harkishindas choose to look after his farm and garden than to enter Sindwork. In the year 1908, his father Mukhi Gurdinomal expired and the responsibilities of the Chief Mukhi fell on him. He too managed the affairs of panchayat in consultation with Mukhi Pritamdas. Thereafter Mukhi Pritamdas’ son Mukhi Jethanand and Mukhi Gobindram gave their guidance to him.  

In 1908, Mukhi Harkishindas became Hyderabad’s Municipal Counselor. In 1925, with his efforts and initiation, The Hyderabad Electric Company was formed. M/s. Mukhi Hiranand Tarachand & Sons, a firm owned by him, were appointed as the managing agents. He, Mukhi Harkishindas, was appointed Managing Agent (Director) of the Electric Company. 

An agreement was reached to supply power to the city through the Municipal Corporation. To enable Municipal Corp. to enter into an agreement with the Electric Company, Mukhi Harkishindas had to first resign from the post of counselor-ship of the Corp. that Mukhi Harkishindas’ family had held since 1885. 

Mukhi Harkishindas was an Honorary Magistrate and Justice of Peace. He was responsible for the formation of Sindwork Merchants Association in 1917 and was its President for 15 years. 

In the year 1914, Mukhi Harkishindas went abroad and no sooner he reached London, Germany declared war. He had to cut short his tour and return to India. In 1930 his business suffered a set back. He then opened a Cotton Ginning Mills at Hyderabad and at Dadoo.

Mukhi Harkishindas had eight children. Four daughters and four sons. His sons were M/s. Mulchand, Lakhmichand, Nandiram and Vashdev.

Mukhi Mangharam Gurdinomal: – Mukhi Mangharam, the second son of Mukhi Gurdinomal was born in the year 1886. He passed Matric in the year 1903. In 1904 he went to Elphinstone College at Bombay and in 1905 Karachi’s D. J. College. In the year 1906, he moved to Poona’s College of Science for six months and thereafter on 15th Sept. 1905 he, along with his cousin Mukhi Choithram went abroad for higher studies. Mukhi Mangharam was the first Sindhi to attend Cambridge University and obtain Diploma in Agriculture Science.

Mukhi Mangharam learnt of his father’s death at London and immediately returned home. In 1909, he again left for London to do his Barristership (Law).  In 1910, after obtaining his second Diploma at Leeds, he returned home.

Poona Agricultural College offered Mukhi Mangharam Professorship, but he declined.

Mukhi Mangharam was recommended for the post of Deputy Collector, but Sind Government had reserved that seat for a Muslim and instead offered him post of First Grade Mukhtiarkar (District Administrator). Mukhi Mangharam declined that offer as well.

Mukhi Mangharam then joined Mr. Mackenzie, an Irish Barrister, as a partner at Karachi and was with him for two years. In 1913, Mukhi Mangharam left for Port Said Egypt to look after his business. In 1918 he opened an office at Japan and in the year 1920 he opened another office in Syria.

Mukhi Mangharam stayed in Hyderabad from the year 1920 to 1923. During that time he, together with his brother Mukhi Harkishindas, he established Hyderabad Electric Company and made it into a successful venture.

Mukhi Mangharam was the Managing Director of the Hyderabad Electric Company and in his absence his cousin Mukhi Choithram took charge as an Acting Managing Director.

In the year 1940, M/s. Mukhi Hiranand Tarachand & Sons’ term of Managing Agents of Hyderabad Electric Company expired. The agency was again renewed for another term of twenty years to expire in 1960. The Hyderabad Electric Company was one of the few Electric Companies that was managed by the Indians.

By 1946, Mukhi Mangharam had completed seventeen year of his stay at Hyderabad and had assisted his brother Mukhi Harkishindas in the Panchayat’s and other civic work. In 1940 riots took place at Sakhar. Mukhi Mangharam was appointed mediator to look into and resolve the grievances of the rioters. 

In 1947, due to the partition of India and creation of Pakistan many Muslim migrants/refugees who had come from Ajmer created unrest and tension in the city. Mukhi Mangharam, who was also Justice of Peace, was amidst those who went to the rescue of the Hindus and saved their lives. Hindus who wanted to leave Sind and go to India were not being provided with requisite help. Mukhi Mangharam saw to it that the local officials provided the same.

Mukhi Mangharam was well educated and saw to it that his children received similar education as well. In 1923 he along with his wife and children went to Europe and returned to Sind in 1929. While abroad, his children studied in English and French schools. He had six children, three boys and three girls.

Mukhi Mangharam’s eldest Daughter was Saraswatibai. She had passed her B.A. & B.T. and was married to Mr. Parmanand Chhablani (Engineer) who was a Squadron Leader in the Air Force. 

The Second daughter was Shrimati Vidya. She had in 1939, passed her M. A. in English and French from Bombay and was for a while Honorary Lecturer of French at Hyderabad College. She married Mr. Mohanlal Sujjan (Judge). Shrimati Vidya was a good singer as well and awarded many trophies and gold medals.

Mukhi Mangharam’s third daughter Shrimati Gopibai was also a graduate and like her father she was Justice of Peace. Shrimati Gopibai married Mr. Mohan Ghaba, son of Lala Harkishinlal, former minister of Lahore. Mr. Mohan Ghaba was, in the year 1947, Managing Director of M/s Radio Lamps at Karachi. This was the first Sindhi Panjabi wedding amongst two important families.

The three daughters of Mukhi Mangharam mentioned above, were amongst the first Bhaibund girls to receive higher education. It was with the initiative of these three daughters that Bhaibund Nari Sabha came into being. The first secretary of the Sabha was Shrimati Gopibai and followed by Shrimati Vidyabai.

Mukhi Parsram Mangharam: – Mukhi Mangharam’s first son Mukhi Parsram was born in the year 1918. At the time of his birth, his father was in Japan.

In 1923, Mukhi Mangharam along with his wife and children left Hyderabad for abroad. Mukhi Parsram was admitted to Victoria College at Alexandria in Egypt. After doing his M.A. & LL.B. he practiced Law with Mr. Santdas Mangharam Advocate. In the year 1947, he was a Judge at Shahdadpur. Mukhi Parsram also married into the Panjabis. He married Shrimati Sarlabai B.A. & B.T., daughter of Mr. Issardas Mallick who was then the Managing Director of Sind Purchase Board.    mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:”Bookman Old Style””>

Mukhi Jio Mangharam: – Mukhi Mangharam’s second son Mukhi Jio was born in London in the year 1928. At the age of thirteen he passed his Matric. In 1947, he was doing his M.A. & LL.B.

Mukhi Lajpat Mangharam: – Mukhi Mangharam’s third son Mukhi Lajpat was born in the year 1934 and in 1947 he was doing his sixth grade.

Mukhi Vishindas Hiranand: – Mukhi Hiranand’s second son Mukhi Vishindas was born in the year 1844. He addressed his elder brother Mukhi Sukhramdas as ‘Ada’ and were very close to one another. Mukhi Vishindas did not interfere in the business affairs and left it to Mukhi Sukhramdas in whom he had immense faith and trust.

Mukhi Vishindas was a quiet and soft-spoken man and loved to dress well and travel. His horse carriage was extremely well decorated. Every morning he prayed at the Tikano (Gurdwara). In the year 1899, he along with his family members went on pilgrimage (Tirth Yatra) and expired at Amritsar on the day of Diwali.

Mukhi Vishindas had four sons: M/s. Dhanrajmal, Dayaram, Hemraj and Dialmal. He also had two daughters. The eldest daughter married Diwan Khushaldas Sahijram Advani (Retired Deputy Collector) and the youngest daughter married Mr. Lalchand Awatrai Jhangiani.   

Mukhi Dhanrajmal Vishindas: – Mukhi Dhanrajmal was born in the year 1869 and studied upto English sixth grade. He had worked for a while in Colombo with M/s. Mukhi Sukhramdas Hiranand and thereafter returned to Hyderabad.

Mukhi Dhanrajmal was a Municipal Councilor for three years and participated in the panchayat affairs. He spent most of his remaining time at his gardens located near Doman Wah with his cousins.

Mukhi Dhanrajmal expired in the year 1913 and had three sons: M/s. Choithram, Assumal and Motiram. He also had two daughters. The eldest daughter was married to Diwan Ranjitsingh Vishindas Ramchandani and the youngest was married in Thadanis.

Mukhi Choithram Dhanrajmal: – Mukhi Dhanrajmal’s son Mukhi Choithram was born in the year 1887. Like his cousin Mukhi Mangharam he was a genius and a person of repute. Both Mukhi Mangharam and Mukhi Choithram were together not only in school and college but also they went abroad together where they both studied law and passed out as Barristers in the year 1909-1910.

Mukhi Choithram till the year 1912 worked as a partner with the law firm of Diwan Hardaram Mewaram Jagtiani and Mr. Deepchand Advocates. He then resigned and went overseas to look after his offices there.

In 1930, Mukhi Choithram’s business suffered a set back and he had to join M/s Seimens, a German company, as its Karachi Manager.

Due to the second German war, M/s. Seimens had to shut down and wind up its Karachi operations. Mukhi Choithram then joined Hyderabad Electric Company as an administrator of the Powerhouse.

Mukhi Choithram’s eldest son Mukhi Mohandas after studying English seventh grade went overseas to look after family’s business.

In 1947, Mukhi Choithram’s second son was in College doing B.A. and two other minor sons were in school.

Mukhi Assudomal Dhanrajmal: – Mukhi Dhanrajmal’s second son Mukhi Assudomal after studying English seventh grade went overseas to look after his offices.

Mukhi Motiram Dhanrajmal: – Mukhi Dhanrajmal’s third son Mukhi Motiram studied upto English fifth grade and like his brother went abroad to take care of the affairs of his business there.  

Mukhi Dayaram Vishindas: – Mukhi Vishindas’ second son Mukhi Dayaram was born in the year 1884. He was the first amongst the Mukhis to pass Matriculation exam in 1894 and to go to college. However, he quit college to join his family’s business that ran under the name of M/s. Mukhi Hiranand Tarachand. He was at first sent to Bombay and then to Multan, Karachi, Kasachi, Hyderabad and Naya Deray where he was in-charge of the management. In 1930 business suffered a setback and Mukhi Mangharam Gurdinomal had to take over the control of the management.

Mukhi Dayaram was for many years President of the Shroff Panchayat. In 1934, he fell ill, and had to curtail his activities and take it easy.

Mukhi Dayaram’s eldest son Mukhi Madhavdas after two years in college joined his business overseas. The other son Mukhi Narsinghdas had passed law and practiced with Diwan Hotchand Gopaldas Advani, Barrister. 

Mukhi Hemraj Vishindas: – The third son of Mukhi Vishindas was Mukhi Hemraj who was born in the year 1878. After studying English fifth or sixth grade, he joined business and looked after his Hyderabad office. Mukhi Hemraj was a of friendly nature and got along well with all. In 1915, he suddenly expired.

Mukhi Hemraj’s son Mukhi Pessumal inherited his father’s nature and temperament and lived overseas looking after his business.

Mukhi Dialmal Vishindas: – Mukhi Dialmal was born in 1884 and studied up to Matric. He accompanied his cousin Mukhi Alloomal Tejumal to Port Said Egypt and joined him as a partner. In 1913 M/s. Mukhi Hiranand Tarachand bought over Mukhi Alloomal’s firm. Mukhi Dialmal stayed on till 1928.

Mukhi Dialmal stayed in Hyderabad from 1930 to 1943 and expired suddenly. He was the secretary of the Hyderabad Bhaibund club.

Mukhi Dialmal had one son named Mr. Gulabrai who had passed his B. A. and in 1947 was doing his M.A.

Mukhi Valiram Dharamdas: – Mukhi Dharamdas Sagharmal’s fourth and last son Mukhi Valiram was born in the year 1795. All the four brothers lived in Mukti Ghitti and were together in business.

In 1838, on the death of Mukhi Valiram’s elder brother Mukhi Assandas, Mukhi Majlasrai separated. The remaining two brothers Mukhi Tarachand and Mukhi Valiram continued together. Their Kothi (office) was located in the Shahi Bazaar.

Mukhi Tarachand had one son named Mukhi Hiranand and Mukhi Valiram had two sons and two daughters. Mukhi Valiram expired in 1845.

 Mukhi Lokumal Valiram: – Mukhi Valiram’s son Mukhi Lokumal (Lokramdas) was born in the year 1815 and was together in business with Mukhi Hiranand for a while. He was soft spoken but dashing. He expired in the year 1872.

Mukhi Lokumal had two sons, M/s. Khialdas and Naraindas, and four daughters. The eldest daughter was married to Diwan Nenumal Dargahimal Idnani Mukhtiarkar (Superior Revenue Officer), father of Mr. Jagatsingh Advocate. The second daughter was married to Rajarshi Diwan Dayaram Gidumal’s brother Diwan Chanrai. The Third daughter was married to Mr. Bulchand Kodumal Jagtiani B. A. head master of Hyderabad Govt. High School and the fourth daughter was married to Diwan Mangharam Mukhtiarkar.

Mukhi Khialdas Lokumal: – Mukhi Khialdas was born in the year 1835. He separated from his uncle (Chacha) Mukhi Chandumal Valiram and started his own Kothi (office-business) under the name of M/s. Lokramdas Valiram. Mukhi Khialdas expired in the year 1879. He had two sons: M/s. Gangaram (1861 – 1911) and Sirumal (1869 – 1911). Mr. Gangaram and Mr. Sirumal were stepbrothers and lived separately.

Mukhi Gangaram, who was hard of hearing, was a moneylender and dealt in Ivory. His eldest son Mr. Lachiram managed the Sindhi Dharamshala at Amritsar that belonged to Seth Wassiamull Assumull.

Mukhi Gangaram’s second son Mr. Gopaldas was a simpleton and did not have to work for living.

The third son of Mukhi Gangaram was Mukhi Shamdas who wound up his overseas business and joined Mukhi Gobindram as his partner. Mukhi Shamdas’ son Mr. Rattanchand has passed his B.A. and was preparing for M.A.  

Mukhi Sirumal (1869 – 1911) worked with his uncle (Chacha) Mukhi Naraindas in the firm known as M/s. Lokramdas Valiram. He thereafter moved to Tando Siru near Nawab Shah, a village that was named after him and looked after his zamindari. He was also a vivid writer and was renowned for his two Sindhi novels: ‘Chander Kanta’ and ‘Suraj Kanta’.

Mukhi Naraindas (1859 – 1918): – Mukhi Naraindas was an intelligent man and managed the firm of M/s. Lokramdas Valiram. Compared to his cousins business, M/s. Lokramdas Valiram was more prosperous and had branches scattered throughout Punjab, Karachi, and Bombay. His farmhouse was located next to Mukhi Sukhramdas’ farmhouse and was called Mukhi Naraindas Farmhouse. 

Mukhi Naraindas’ only son Mukhi Kewalram had offices mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:”Bookman Old Style””> abroad. But business turned sour and he fell ill and had to return back to Hyderabad. He expired in the year 1923.

Mukhi Chandumal Valiram: – Mukhi Valiram’s second son Mukhi Chandumal was born in the year 1830. He joined his cousin Mukhi Hiranand and his son Mukhi Sukhramdas in their cloth business. After the demise of his brother Mukhi Lokumal (Lokramdas), Mukhi Chandumal started his own business.    

Mukhi Chandumal and Mukhi Sukhramdas worked together for betterment of the community and did social work. When Mukhi Sukhramdas became Municipal Counselor, he got Mukhi Chandumal selected as well on Government seat. 

Mukhi Chandumal was short in height and his left-hand wrist was twisted due to an accident that he had while swimming. He expired in the year 1885.

Mukhi Chandumal had one son: Mukhi Pritamdas and two daughters. The eldest daughter was mother of Diwan Khanchand Gopaldas Mansukhani, Karachi’s renowned Advocate. The other daughter was married to Diwan Gobindbux Khubchand Advani (retired Mukhtiarkar (District Administrator), cousin of Sadhu Hiranand Shokiram.   

Mukhi Pritamdas Chandumal: – Mukhi Pritamdas, son of Mukhi Chandumal Valiram was born in the year 1859. Mukhi Pritamdas was in his teens when his father Mukhi Chandumal expired. He had no experience of business and as a result his cousin Mukhi Sukhramdas went to his rescue and managed his business and at the same time teaching him so that ultimately he could take over.

Mukhi Sukhramdas had during the lifetime of Mukhi Chandumal given his word that in the event of any unforeseen circumstances he would look after Mukhi Pritamdas.

Just as Mukhi Hiranand and Mukhi Sukhramdas had groomed Mukhi Chandumal to devote time and work for the upliftment of the community, they took out time to groom Mukhi Pritamdas as well.

After the demise of Mukhi Sukhramdas, his son Mukhi Gurdinomal and after him his son Mukhi Harkishindas Gurdinomal continued to participate in the community and social work.

Mukhi Pritamdas was a reserve and sober man, but at the same time lady luck was with him. He kept on expanding his branches and money kept pouring in.

Mukhi Tarachand and Mukhi Valiram decided to part their ways. They had around one thousand acres of land at Nawab Shah that were barren and uncultivated. This ancestral land along with their other holding was then divided on paper in to two lots. Mukhi Sukhramdas and Mukhi Pritamdas then raffled, with each one picking one paper. 

Mukhi Pritamdas in his share got the barren land. However, soon thereafter on 24th Nov. 1899 ‘Jhamrau Wah’ (canal) was inaugurated that brought water to the barren land and made it fertile. Mukhi Pritamdas there after collected Land Rights Fee from the occupants. Soon thereafter, Mukhi Pritamdas bought over holdings that were in hands of his cousins Mukhi Naraindas and Mukhi Sirumal. From a mere one thousand acres of land, his holding increased to ten thousand acres.

Mukhi Pritamdas was then considered the richest man in Hyderabad. Despite the wealth, he was very modest and humble. He contributed to charity and kept his name anonymous (Gupt Daan). Mukhi Pritamdas maintained relationship with his bradri members and with Mukhi Sukhramdas till the end. He, Mukhi Pritamdas passed away in 1920.

Mukhi Pritamdas had four sons and four daughters. His eldest daughter married Diwan Hotchand Chandumal Thadani, retired Collector and District Magistrate. After the death of his wife, Diwan Hotchand remarried with the third daughter of Mukhi Pritamdas. Diwan Hotchand’s second wife did not conceive. He had children only from his first wife.

Mukhi Pritamdas’ other daughter married Dr. Kalyandas Jethanand Shivdasani, Civil Surgeon. The fourth daughter married Mr. Motiram Gidumal Jhangiani who was the Traffic Superintendent of G. I. P. Railways (Great Indian Peninsula, now Central Railways) at Bombay.

Mukhi Pritamdas’ sons: Mukhi Jethanand, Mukhi Girdharimal, Mukhi Mathuradas who passed away at the age of 11-12 years and Mukhi Gobindram. Mukhi Gobindram was the only surviving son in 1947.

Mukhi Jethanand Pritamdas: – Mukhi Jethanand was born in the year 1883 and studied upto English second grade. He thereafter left school and took private tuition and acquired fluency in English. During the lifetime of his father, Mukhi Jethanand participated in the Panchayat activities and kept abreast with the political happenings. He was an active Congress worker but when the British Government decided to take action against the Congress activists, he had a second thought and kept a low profile.

A joint meeting of Mukhis in Sind was conveyed by the Hyderabad Mukhis. Mukhi Jethanand being elder to Mukhi Harkishindas was the Patron. Mukhi Jethanand was labeled as the Mukhi of Sind.

Mukhi Jethanand liked good things in life. (Showkeen). He spent thousand of rupees to beautify his ancestral farmhouse and garden. He shifted from his Mukti Ghitti house to his newly constructed palatial bungalow that had cost him lacs of rupees, located opposite the Homestead Hall, just outside the Fort, on Paki Chari.

Mukhi Jethanand expired in the year 1927 at the age of 44 years. Mukhi Jethanand had two daughters. One married Mr. Fatehchand Tarachand and other married Mr. Verhomal Lalwani Engineer.

Mukhi Gobindram Pritamdas: – Mukhi Gobindram was born in the year 1898 with a golden spoon in his mouth and his father was very fond of him. Mukhi Gobindram was handsome and inherited his father’s estate worth lacs of rupees. After passing Matric Mukhi Gobindram attended college for two years and got into business. His brother, Mukhi Jethanand had got him involved in the Panchayat activities. 

At the time of Mukhi Jethanand’s demise, Mukhi Harkishindas was attending a seminar at Poona. With Mukhi Harkishindas’ consent the seat of Mukhism was awarded to Mukhi Gobindram. He became the Mukhi of Sind.

Mukhi Gobindram was a distinguished man coming from a well to do family. Despite the name, fame and wealth, he desired to do more for the community. Mukhi Gobindram headed most of the charitable institutions.

Mukhi Gobindram was a member of the Hyderabad Municipal Corporation. He was director of ‘Hindu Fund’, a fund created for uplift of the Sindhi Hindus. For three years he was President of the Tolaram Girls High School.

To bring the Bhaibands together, a ‘Bhaibund Sabha’ was formed under Mukhi Gobindram’s president-ship. He was conveyer of the Sind Hindu Conference. In 1936, Sind separated from Bombay Presidency, and an advisory board was formed to select the Governor. Mukhi Gobindram represented the Hindus.

The following year Assembly elections took place and Mukhi Gobindram was elected as its member. He was the first Hindu minister and the portfolio of Engineering Dept. went to him. Mukhi Gobindram was also a Justice of Peace.

In 1945, Mukhi Gobindram was re-elected as a Minister and held portfolios of Health and Agriculture etc.

Mukhi Gobindram had 5 daughter and 3 sons. The eldest son Mr. Govardhandas looked after the farms and zamindari. The second son Ramchand was, in the year 1947, studying in College and the third son Mr. Jagdish was schooling.  

Mukhi Rajaram Sagharmal: – Mukhi Rajaram was born in around the year 1754 and expired around 1786. He had two sons: M/s. Menghraj and Gulabrai. Mukhi Menghraj had no children. Mukhi Gulabrai had five sons. Mukhi Jechandas, son of Mukhi Gulabrai, prospered and expired in the year 1844.

Mukhi Jechandas’ eldest son Mr. Mangharam was born in the year 1820 and expired in 1891. He was a real estate broker and had a good personality. Mukhi Mangharam had two sons: M/s. Chuharmal and Dulhanomal, and four daughters. The eldest daughter married Diwan Shokisingh Pribhdas Malkani, Divisional Forest Officer.    

Mukhi Chuharmal Mangatram (1856 – 1900) was a watchmaker. He also had a Ice Depot. Ice in those days was brought to Hyderabad all the way from Karachi.

The grandson of Mukhi Gulabrai Rajaram was Mr. Harchandmal Awatrai (1814 – 1892). He, Mr. Harchandmal Awatrai, jointly in partnership with his sayn (sambandhi – relationship between two families whose children are married to) Seth Atmaram Pritamdas Bhojwani of Karachi, took contracts and tenders for sale and distribution of wine and opium. Mukhi Harchandmal had five sons and one daughter. The daughter was married to Seth Fatehchand Atmaram Bhojwani of Karachi.

Mr. Gulabrai’s son Mr. Shamdas  (1800 – 1840) opened an office (Kothi) at Lakhpat and was nicknamed Lakhpat Wara. At Lakhpat Mukhi Shamdas constructed a Dharamshala (pilgrims’ rest house) in memory of his father and named it ‘Gulabrai Sindhi Dharamshala’.

In 1843, during the Miyani battle, an exodus took place in Sind. Mukhi Hiranand Tarachand’s family left Hyderabad travelling in bullock carts for Lakhpat and stayed with their cousins. They returned to Hyderabad after peace had restored.

The grandson of Harchandmal, Mr. Girdharimal Tulsidas worked for the Military at Quetta and expired in the year 1945.

Harchandmal’s other descendant was Mukhi Lalchand who in the year 1947, had his offices at Gibraltar and Trinidad.



Sathras lived in Sathran Jee Ghitti at Hyderabad. Their episode and origin is said to be as follows:

Guru Hargobind Sahib had gone to Kashmir and on his return journey he camped for the night in a village. There, he heard a child crying and screaming. Guru sahib asked one of his shishs (disciple-follower) to investigate and report. The shish reported that a Kathrow (destitute) child was crying. Guru Hargobind Sahib asked the child to be brought to him.

Looking at the child Guru Sahib said that the child was not a Kathrow but he was a Sathrow (affluent) and gave him refuge in his camp. After some time the parents came in search of the child and Guru Hargobind Sahib handed the child back to them.

Sathrow grew up to be a bright young man. His parents wanted their child to study and take up some vocation but Sathrow would not listen. After the demise of both his parents, Sathrow performed a Yagnya (Havan, Hom) that cost him his entire savings.

With nothing left to live by, Sathrow went to Guru Hargobind Sahib who recognized him and called out “Come come Sathrow Shah”. It was from that moment that ‘Sathrow or Sathra Shahi’ began. Guru Hargobind Sahib then dressed Sathrow in a suitable attire and made him his shish (disciple) and deputed him to propagate Sikhism. In the course of time, Sathrow’s shishs and their disciples formed their own ‘Sathra sect’.

 Sathrow was a pleasant and jovial man. It is said that he got a pair of velvet shoes made that were 4 feet long with beautiful embroidery and word “Firshito” (Angel) embroidered on it. Middle of the night he went to a Qazi’s (Muslim Priest) house and left one shoe out side his door. 

Next morning, the Qazi found the shoe with word ‘Firshto’ and thought that it must have been an Angle that had left the shoe there. The news of the Firshto’s shoe spread like a wild fire throughout the city and many thronged to Qazi’s house to see it. The Qazi, it is said, charged a fee for showing the shoe.

Sathrow thereafter took the other shoe and placed it on top of a stick and holding it high in the hand he walked towards the Qazi’s house shouting that he had lost the other shoe and inquired if any body had seen or found it?

The Qazi was in doldrums. He knew that if the people came to know that the shoe belonged to Sathrow, he (Qazi) would loose face. Qazi offered the shoe back to Sathrow with a condition that he kept quiet and retreats quickly. But Sathrow refused and demanded that he would oblige only if his two conditions were fulfilled.

First condition was that the Qazi refrain from removing Janiya (Sacred Thread) from any Hindu’s neck i.e. stop converting Hindus to Islam, and second, that Qazi speak to the Hakim (ruler) and allow Sathrow and his disciples to collect alms and donations from all the shopkeepers for their sect.

The Qazi had influence with the Hakim (ruler) who agreed to both the conditions.  The Sathras thereafter collected their alms from the shopkeepers and chanted “Hardam Baba Nanak Shah, Sukhi Da bera Bani Lai”, and would not move till they received their alms.

Author Diwan Bherumal writes that the above article was published in Hyderabad’s ‘Hindu’ newspaper on April 16th 1929. The editor of the newspaper was Prof. Ghansham Jethanand.



SIPAHMALANI: – Diwan Sipahimal.  

Nukh: Nagdev.

Sipahmalani are Arorvanshi.  During the Arab invasion of 711 AD most of the inhabitants of Alor fled to Multan and other places to escape the Arab onslaught and again when an earthquake rocked Alor, the remaining left.

During the Kalhora reign the Sipahmalanis lived in Multan. It is believed that it was during that time that they (Sipahmalanis) shifted from Multan to Khudabad.

In the year 1759, Khosas (a caste among Muslim) raided Khudabad. They looted both the Hindus and Muslims and burnt the entire city compelling the inhabitants to flee to Sahiti, Tilti, Saywan, Larkana, Sakhar and Hyderabad.  Khudabad was left to ruins.

Some Sipahmalanis went to Saywan where the Batanis who have the same Nagdev nukh lived and others went to Hyderabad.

Maidasani and Motiani living in District Navsheri Firoz, too have the same nukh.

Mir Fatehali Khan Talpar declared Hyderabad as his Capital. The Sipahmalani were amongst the first Diwans to migrate there and that is the reason why their houses were located right in the hub of the city. The city grew around their houses. Chhablanis also lived near to them.

Diwan Sipahimal after whom the surname is named was son of Diwan Karamchand Kalyandas.

In 1947, most of the Sipahmalanis were descendants of Diwan Nandiram, son of Diwan Sipahimal. Prominent amongst them was Sant (holy man) Sain Kesoram who was a shish (disciple) of Sain Dalpatram Sufi of Saywan and had inherited his gadhi (seat).

After Sant Sain Kesoram, his son Sain Hariram and thereafter Sain Hariram’s brother Sain Atmaram inherited the gadhi. His followers and believers from far and near visited Sant Sain Kesoram’s Tikano and paid their respects.

The Tikano mentioned above was not a traditional Tikano. It is said that at dusk all utensils were washed and kept upside down including the matka (drinking water utensil). ‘Subhanay Ja Bhagh Subhanay San’. ‘Tomorrow was tomorrow, an another day’.

Sain Hariram was masser (son of mother’s sister) of Diwan Bherumal Advani the Author and a regular visitor to the Tikano. He (Diwan Bherumal) had seen with his own eyes a lady, whose prayers and wishes had been granted remove her jewelry and put it in the donation box.

Bhai Mulchand Aaj waro (Ivory merchant) who was a Sant (holy man) as well, was present there. Sain Hariram took the jewelry out of the donation box and handed it over to Bhai Mulchand to sell it and buy food grain etc. that was required for the next day for preparation of Prashad. 

Many thronged from far away places to pay their respects and revere the Tikano (place of worship). Arti was performed twice daily, once in the morning and once in the evening, followed by singing of Bhajans and devotional songs.

Right from the days of Sant Sain Kesoram, it had been customary for the Tikano to prepare daily Dhodha (a pancake made out of Joower) and Sai Bhaji (spinach) as Parsad.

From the same Sipahmalani roots came Sant (pious) ‘Gyan Saroop’ who despite his drinking habit was revered by the Pathans. They presented him with valuable gifts. 

Amongst Sant Gyan Saroop’s close cousins were Diwan Jagatrai and his son Mr. Chandumal’s family and Diwan Hargundas’ families.

Diwan Hargundas’ two sons Mr. Shamdas and Mr. Chetanram had expired prior to 1947 and only Mr. Gobindram was alive, who had in the year 1947 retired from the Military Engineering Service.

Diwan Hargundas’ other close cousins were Diwan Ramchand, Diwan Roopchand (ex Graham Co.), Diwan Tarachand (Cooper Co.) who expired prior to 1947. Their father was Diwan Gurdas, son of Diwan Hotchand.

Diwan Bherumal Mahirchand Advani states that Diwan Hotchand was Nano (maternal grandfather) of his (Diwan Bherumal’s) father, Diwan Mahirchand.

The other close cousins of Diwan Hotchand were Mr. Parmanand Chhatomal, Mr. Tiloomal Teckchand and his brothers Mr. Nenumal (ex Port Trust), Mr. Naraindas, Mr. Deepchand, Mr. Lachiram and others. Diwan Udhavdas was the grandfather of all the above mentioned Sipahmalanis.

Diwan Udhavdas’ brother was Diwan Khemchand. His sons: Mr. Choithram  (ex Graham Co.), Mr. Pessumal (Salt & Excise Dept.), Mr. Wilayatrai (Straus Co.) and Mr. Jhamatmal (Graham Co.).

Mr. Pessumal drew a salary of Rs. 60/- per month from Salt & Excise Dept. and expired undergoing surgery for a stomach ailment.

Mr. Wilayatrai’s wife expired during delivery. The newborn also did not survive. Mr. Wilayatrai did not remarry and treated the children of his brother Mr. Pessumal as his own.

Mr. Pessumal’s eldest son Mr. Khanchand had passed his M.A. and in the year 1947 was professor at Benaras University. Mr. Pessumal’s second son Mr. Naraindas was member of the Congress party and also an Advocate.

Mr. Pessumal’s eldest daughter was married to Mr. Bhagchand Khubchand Kirpalani BA. The youngest daughter of Mr. Pessumal, Kumari Parvatibai (Kakla) was born in the year 1908. She had passed her BA and in the year 1947 she taught at The Indian Girls High School, Karachi.  She was an active participant in Balkan Ji Bari.

Kumari Parvatibai had written a book titled ‘Sind – Story of Hundred Years’ and received an award of Rs. 500/- from the Sindhi Adab (Sahitya) Board. She was the only lady in Sind to receive such award.

The other cousins of Sipahmalani: Mr. Parmanand Kundanmal, Public Prosecutor and others. Their roots are connected with Diwan Nandiram Sipahimal.

From the roots of Diwan Nandiram Sipahimal came Diwan Issardas Metharam (ex Salt & Excise Dept.) He expired at the age of 38 in 1890. Diwan Issardas had four sons: M/s. Tulsidas, Bhagchand, Jagatrai and Kodumal. All the four had expired prior to 1947.

Diwan Tulsidas Issardas was born on 8th July 1874. After Matriculation he joined Military Engineering Service in June 1891, and served for 36 years. For many years he was with Commanding Royal Engineers’ Office as its Head Clerk at Karachi and Quetta. He drew salary of Rs. 400/- that was considered very good pay. He was a dedicated worker and spent most of his time at his desk that led to, in 1916, his suffering from rheumatic or arthritis pain of the joints. The military doctors were unable to give him relief. He then went to England for treatment.

Treatment in England gave Diwan Tulsidas some relief and he returned to Sind and resumed his duty. For dedication and devotion to his work, he was bestowed title of ‘Rai Sahib’ by the British. However, ailment continued to curtail his movements. He retired and took pension. Diwan Tulsidas expired on July 1st 1926.

Diwan Tulsidas left behind two sons and four daughters. His two sons Mr. Lekhraj and Mr. Udharam were partners in the firm of M/s. M. J. Shahani & Co. at Karachi. Mr. Lekhraj expired around the year 1947.

Diwan Tulsidas’ eldest daughter Shrimati Devibai was married. His other daughter Kumari Bhojibai was a medical student and expired in 1925 under going medical surgery.

Diwan Tulsidas’ third daughter Kumari Jethibai was born on 4th Feb. 1906. She passed Matric and went to College. In the year 1929 she was principal of ‘Daya Ashram’. The next year in 1930 she left the job and entered the freedom movement with the Congress party and was responsible for picketing and other freedom struggles. 

Kumari Jethibai Tulsidas Sipahmalani was for some time secretary of the Gandhi Hospital and member of the Municipal School Board and in 1934 member of the Municipal Corporation.

Kumari Jethibai visited Europe in 1935 to study European education system. In 1936, Sind separated from Bombay Presidency. The following year Kumari Jethibai became member of Sind Assembly and in 1938, she was deputy speaker of the Assembly.

In between the years 1932 and 1942, Kumari Jethibai Sipahmalani participated in the freedom movement and was sent to jail. The hardships of the prison did not deter her. She continued with her struggle with more vigor. From the year 1944 until the partition of India she was President of the Provincial Nurses, Midwives  & Health Visitors Council.

Diwan Bhagchand Issardas, brother of Diwan Tulsidas was born in the year 1878. After passing Matric he joined D. J. College where he and Sadhu T. L. Vaswani were the editors of College Miscellany. After passing BA, Diwan Bhagchand served with Kherpur Rayasat’s (State) Minster Kadar Dadkhan as his private secretary. Then he joined Revenue Dept. and became Mukhtiarkar (District Administrator). The last four five years of his life he was Deputy Collector but expired suddenly in the year 1932 at Tando Adam.

Diwan Bhagchand’ son Mr. Kishinchand was born in the year 1905. He was a graduate and Municipal Prosecutor with Karachi Municipal Corp.

Outstanding amongst the Sipahmalanis in 1947 was Doctor Naraindas Dharamdas.



A few Punjabi businessmen from Punjab visited Sind to study the potentials of the market and stayed on. Hence the name Sindhi Panjabi. Most of them hailed from Deray Gazikhan, east of Punjab.

During the reign of the Emperor Aurangzeb, his appointed officials collected from the Muslims “Zaqwaat” (a fixed percentage of income to be given to the ruler for distribution of alms to the poor) and “Jazh” (a captivation tax) from the non-Muslims.

As ordained by Guru Gobind Singh Sahib, the Sikhs refused to pay the tax with the result they had to suffer atrocities. Unable to bear the pain and the torture, some Hindus along with Sikhs fled to Sind and settled at ‘Llar’, that was then the commercial hub. 

In 1947, there were approximately 600 Sindhi Panjabi families scattered all ever Karachi, Kotri, Hyderabad, Tando Jaam, Tando Alhyar, Mirpur Khas, Samari, Dhagri, Tando Adam, Nawab Shah and Sakarand. Not all these 600 families were from the same root. They have therefore, different Nukhs. For example, Sapra, Ghera etc.

Many Sindhi Panjabis opted for higher education and some of them became Advocates etc.

Mr. Chuharmal Kundanmal Panjabi was amongst the first to go to Bombay with Sadhu Navalrai Shokiram, Diwan Dayaram Jethmal and Diwan Korimal Chandanmal to appear for Matric examination and he (Chuharmal K. Panjabi) alone passed the exam. He was also the first Sindhi who in the year 1865 passed his BA.

Another well known and respected personality amongst the Sindhi Panjabi was Diwan Bahadur Murlidhar Jeramdas Panjabi.  




The following text has been translated from Sindhi Volume of “Sind Jay Hindun Jee Tareekh” Part Two, page 166. For more information look up ‘Translator’s note’ and ‘Readers Respond’ after the short note on Kukreja.

“Bookman Old Style””>Nukh: Kukreja.

Bhagwanani, Ambwani, Keswani, and Mulchandani have the same Nukh. They  are Arorvanshi. (See Arorvanshi.)

It is said that while fighting a battle, their ancestors ran out of ammunition and used Kakar (Pebbles) instead. Hence the name Kukreja, i.e. Kakriwara.

Bhagwanani lived at Kherpur Mir Sahibwari. Prominent amongst them was Diwan Mulram, City Magistrate and others. Jethwani is a branch of Bhagwanani.

Translators Note:

I have received the following communication from Mr. Bhisham Bhagwanani, from Canada, email:  that is reproduced below with his consent. I am grateful for the contribution.

Readers Respond:

Dear Narain,

Commend you for collecting the Sindhi surnames’ history. Excellent work. Please keep it up.

Eons ago someone told me that an old book on Sindhi surnames by Mr. Sobhraj (forgot the surname), mentioned on the very first page that Bhagwanani surname stands out for being Grand Vazirs to Mirs of Khairpur state for many generations. But you have hardly any mention of Bhagwananis.

Bhagwananis are direct decedents of Maharaja Surajmal of Bharatpur.

My great-grandfather, Mulram, was the last Grand Vazir to Mir Ali Murad. The Mir had three sons, youngest one was considered a trouble maker and on my great-grandfather’s advice Mir exiled the son on 24 hours notice. Unfortunately Mir’s two older sons died and when Mir was dieing his exiled son returned. Mir told him not to harm Bhagwananis.

After his death the son became the Mir and told Bhagwananis that he is not going to harm them but give them same 24 hours notice, like the one they gave him, to leave Khairpur with all their belongings.

Overnight Bhagwanani left Khairpur for Rohiri.

My father, Satramdas was a civil engineer and on retirement wrote many books “Rohani Roshni, Bhagwat Geeta in poetry form (in English), Bible in nut-shell etc.

My grandfather, Kewalram was a lawyer like his two other brothers. His other brother was textile engineer from England, he never worked and was nicknamed “Kako Vando !!!”.

I am a retired scientist from Canadian government. My older bother Air Comm. (Dr.) Nijram (winner of many national and international awards in medicine, mountaineering, paratrooping), after retiring from the Indian Air Force headed the big, ultra modern Choithram Hospital and Research Center in Indore for over 12 years. His both children are doctors. Son, Anil, went on a Mt. Everest expedition, like his father (member of the first Indian expedition in 1960)

My younger brother Kishin is a C.A. and has good practice in Pune. His son, Manish, is a software engineer in USA.

My son, Neal, is MBA from Hawaii and is a banker.  

Kukrejas were Rajputs and moved to Sind from Punjab. There are still Punjabi Kukrejas (I have a Punjabi friend here in Victoria named Kawaljeet Kukreja, an auditor with the government). If the name was derived from kakar (stone, pebble) in Punjab it would have been Kukreda and not Kukrejas.

Mulram Bhagwanani, my great-grandfather, was the minister to the Mir, and not a magistrate. Once a Muslim delegation came to the Mir and asked him why he has Hindu minister, why not a Muslim. To that the Mir asked them if they had some Muslim in their mind they can bring him over. And they did.

Mir asked the candidate to go find out where the camel caravan, which was passing through the Khairpur state, was coming from. He went and came back with the answer.

Then Mir asked him to go and find out what goods they are trading in. He did.

 Then he asked him to find out how often they go through the state. He did.

The Mir kept asking him questions and he kept going back and forth to the caravan.

Then the Mir summoned for Mulram and asked him to find out where the caravan was coming from. Mulram came back with that information as well as answers to all the Mirs subsequent questions and much more, and suggested to Mir that theirs looks like a very profitable business and Khairpur state may look in to starting some thing like that.

Muslim delegation seeing the big difference between capabilities of their

candidate and Mulram left the Mirs haveli.”   


Bhisham Bhagwanani


Dated Oct. 2004. 


‘The Source of Sindhi Surnames’ is a translation into English, by Mr. Narain Sobhraj Kimatrai from the original in Sindhi by Mr. Diwan Bherumal Mahirchand Advani